Friday, October 19, 2012

Class XII, ENGLISH, Character, "Colonel Sapt"

Colonel Sapt

Colonel Sapt is one of the most significant and momentous characters of the novel entitled Prisoner of Zenda, written by Anthony Hope. Being the most loyal servant of the kind, Colonal Sapt was the man behind the impersonating of King Elphberg by Rudolf Russendyll. It was due to his guidance that Rassendyll could successfully play the role of king Elphberg.
Colonal Sapt has played the character of an honest person who has sincere wishes to save the throne for the real king of Ruritania. A single glance over the mentioned qualities will bring to light the noble character of Colonal Sapt.
Courage and Bravery
Colonal Sapt is a brave man whose gallantry keeps him motivated for taking personal risks. He shows great valour on all events. He is also very loyal to the king and serves the throne with dedication and faith. Being a sovereign authority, he has enough experience in the art of governing people. His only objective in life is to reinstate King Elphberg. For this achievement, he uses all the persons including Countess Flavia as pieces of chess board.
Sapt’s courage and determination is enlighted when he said to Rassendyll:
“If we’re detected, I’ll send Black Micheal down below before I go myself.”
Wisdom and Sensibility
Colonal Sapt is a wise man. His superb prudence made him sensible enough not take reckless steps. He uses his mind and intelligence on the battlefield of life. It was merely due to his witticism that Rassendyll’s identification was not revealed. Although the Colonal does not accept advises from others, his gorgeous mentality enables him to crush all the obstacles that come in the path of his aim. Due to these qualities, he exalted himself in the eyes of the king and Rassendyll.
His wisdom is enlighted when he said:
“… If you do not go I swear to you Black Micheal will sit tonight on the throne, and the king lie in prison or his grave.”
Friendly Attitude
Colonal Sapt is not only a good advisor, but also a sincere friend of Rassendyll. He became Rassendyll’s friend as soon as they both met. Colonal Sapt served his friend on every difficult stage. A good example of sincere friendship is seen at the Summer House, when Russendyll was in a dangerous situation among the enemies.
Colonal Sapt appears to be a confirmed bachelor having low opinion about women. He never trusts in ladies, but believes that women spoil everything. Even the princess does not come in exception to his hatred for the opposite gender.
When Mme de Mauban invites Rassendyll to the Summer House, he said:
“I do not believe any woman and you shall not go.”
Colonal Sapt is a well-disciplined man. He has some firm rules, which are strictly followed by him. This discipline and devotion leads the colonal to serve the king and his country.
When Rassendyll went to Marshall for some help without consulting him, Sapt angrily said:
“Sapt likes to be consulted before hand, not informed afterwards.”
Colonal Sapt is a colonal in the Ruritanian Army. He is the oldest of all the hot-blooded armymen. The colonal is a devoted servant of the king. His loyalty is for the cause of monarchy and not for any particular person. He has a highly productive mind, which enables him to act daringly to restore the throne. He succeeded in liberating who was the actual inheritor to the throne.
Colonal Sapt says:
“I have eaten the King’s bread and I am the King’s servant.”
The character performed by Colonal Sapt is worth-reading. Readers get fascinated by his wisdom, loyalty, courage and good principles.

Class XII, ENGLISH, Character, "Rudolf Ressendyll"

Rudolf Ressendyll

Rudolf Rassendyll is the hero and central character of the novel entitled The Prisoner of Zenda, written by Anthony Hope. The integral character of Rassendyll holds the attention of the readers throughout the exciting events of the novel. Rassendyll possesses a prime personality and is linked with the main incidents of the novel in one way or the other.
Various Aspects of His Role
Rudolf Rassendyll is a tall, young and handsome man, who belongs to a noble family in England. He is an educated man of twenty-nine, who has perfect command over German and French. He is bold, cultural and knows the art of becoming popular. He has red hair, straight nose, blue eyes and a beard. His physical appearance bears striking resemblance to that of the real king, though there were some points of differences. Rassendyll himself pointed out:
“The king’s face was slightly more fleshy than mine, the oval of its contour the least trifle more pronounced and his mouth lacking something of the firmness which was to be gathered from my close-shutting lips.”

However, in spite of these differences, Colonel Sapt could not help mentioning to Rassendyll:
“You’re an Elphberg, every inch of you.”
Rudolf Rassendyll is very fond of adventures and loves to roam about instead of sticking to a job. He is also a good mastermind who handles difficult situations seeming effortless. The desire to participate in sensational events is always there in his heart. This desire was fulfilled by his play-acting of King Rudolf Elphberg, who was very identical to him. His likeness with the king of Ruritania helped him to make his mission a success. He pledges in strong and unequivocal terms:
“I have been an imposter for the profit of another, but I will not be one for my own; and if the king is not alive and on his throne before the day of betrothal comes I will tell the truth, come what may.”
Wisdom and Prudence
Rudolf Rassendyll proves himself to be a man of outstanding attributes and full of wisdom. He plays the role of the king very intelligently. Once he gets entangled in Ruritanian politics, he becomes conscious not only of the significance of his royal position but also of the responsibility, which lies on his shoulders. He is a wise, cool minded and responsible man.
Faithfulness and Sincerity
Rudolf Rassendyll is a sincere man. He does not want to keep the throne to himself. He carries out all his responsibilities with firmness and confidence. He realizes that it is his duty to restore the real king to the throne and he never tries to take undue advantage as a pretender. His veracity and sincerity is outstanding as he declares:
“If I’m found out, I’ ll make a clean breast of it, and fight it out with the Duke.”
Boldness and Courage
Rudolf Rassendyll is supposed to be gifted with extraordinary courage and chivalry, and does not fall short of our expectations in this matter. He is an expert rider and an excellent sword man. When time and fate offered Rassendyll a challenge, he accepted him as a brave man. His stay in Ruritania unfolds his marvelous sense of responsibility, boldness and wisdom. The role played by him in Ruritania to save the throne from Black Michael was really an act of gallantry and wisdom.
The romantic aspect of Rassendyll’s personality shows that his heart throbs for Princess Flavia but the sense of duty and devotion to the throne is far stronger in him. The circumstances urge him to express love to Princess Flavia but bot to feel it. Being deeply conscious of his responsibility and dedication, he declares:
“I had to keep the princess devoted to me and yet indifferent to me; I had to show affection for her and not feel it.”
The Great Sacrifice
In order to maintain peace in Ruritania and not to disgrace the royal family, Rudolf Rassendyll took a sensible and daring step. He sacrificed his love at the altar of duty and left Ruritania with tears of regret in the eyes of Princess Flavia, words of gratitude on the lips of king, applause and appreciation from all the countrymen and feeling of satisfaction on his own part.
“There is no moral authority like that of sacrifice.”
– Nadine Gordimer

Class XII, ENGLISH, Character, "Princess Flavia"

Princess Flavia

Princess Flavia is a character from the novel entitled The Prisoner of Zenda, written by Anthony Hope. She is the only female character who is not directly involved in the conspiracies, which pervade the entire atmosphere of the novel. She is the cousin and fiancée of King Rudolf Elphberg and is the immediate inheritor to the throne. She bears a bewitching personality and fascinates the readers by the elegant attitude.
Her appearance can be perceived by Rudolf Rassendyll’s saying:
“A girl pale and lovely, surmounted by a crown of glorious Elphberg hair.”
Beautiful Aspects of her Role
Princess Flavia is a young, captivating and decent lady. She possesses a character full of virtues and commands great respect and admiration among the people of Ruritania. They wish to see her as the future queen of the country. She is a noble and kind-hearted woman.
“Trust men, and they will be true to you; treat them greatly, and they will show themselves great.”
- Ralph Waldo Emerson

Soberness and Intelligence
Princess Flavia is a wise woman. Her wisdom keeps her aware of the evil desires of Black Michael, who is not a good man. She very intelligently keeps herself away from all sorts of intrigues. She is a sensible person who has the courage to face the realities of life.
Her intelligence is enlightened when she said to Rassendyll:

“Do be careful,” she went on, “you don’t – indeed you don’t – keep enough watch on him.”
Princess Flavia is a lady with elements of love in her heart. These elements increase the fascination and temptation in her character. She sincerely and quite confidently admits her inclination towards Rassendyll, being impressed by his personality. She was bold enough to propose Rassendyll but her sensibility restricted her to perform any action below dignity. She gave heart and soul to Rudolf Rassendyll considering him to be the real king. She never mourns her decision even after coming to know that he is a pretender. She confessed that Rudolf Rassendyll was acceptable to him even if he was a beggar.
“The fate of love is that it always seems too little or too much.”
- Amelia Barr

The princess was a sincere and devoted lady, always worried about the security of Rassendyll. She advised him time and again to be cautious of the wicked plans of Duke Michael. When Black Michael was successful in injuring Rassendyll, she at once reached Zenda to look after him. This action reflects her sense of responsibility and devotion towards the man whom she loved from the depths of her heart.
She said to Rassendyll:
“Oh, if you were not the king, then I could show you how I love you.”
Duty and Patriotism
Princess Flavia is a responsible lady. She very loyal to her country and knows the difference between love and duty. She sets an example of the greatest sacrifice by giving up her love at the altar of duty. This aspect of her character shows that she is not the slave of her passions.
Here sense of duty is enlightened when she says to Rassendyll:
“Your ring will always be on my finger, your heart in my heart. But you must go and I must stay.”
The Great Sacrifice
In order to maintain peace in Ruritania and not to disgrace the royal family, Princess Flavia took a sensible and daring step. She sacrificed her love for the sake of her homeland and parted with Rassendyll forever. It was a noble and graceful decision in the interest of Ruritania and the Royal family.
“There is no moral authority like that of sacrifice.”
– Nadine Gordimer
Princess Flavia proves to be not only the leading female character of the novel but also the most lively and integral personality. She holds the attentions of the readers because of her charm, duty and incredible virtues. She respected the wishes of the people and the country and gave up her love for the sake of her country. She is a complete symbol of love, beauty and sacrifice, which makes her an admirable character.

To love one person with a private love is poor and miserable, to love all is glorious.”
- Thomas Traherne

Class XII, ENGLISH, Summary, "The World As I See It"

The World As I See It

The World as I See It is an interesting essay in which Albert Einstein has expressed his personal views about the purpose and ideals of life; democracy and dictatorship; war and peace; mystery and religion.
Albert Einstein is one of the most famous scientists and the greatest mathematical physicist of the current century. However, in this chapter, he gives us his views not about science but about the world as he sees and understands it.
There are several things that Einstein mentions in this connection. Firstly, Einstein tries to find out the purpose of the existence of human beings and giving an answer. He feels that we human beings are created for each other and we are dependent on each other.
Einstein goes on to declare that he does not believe in class differences. Einstein also declares that he believes in simple living and a simple way of life. Next, he expresses his opinion regarding freedom. Einstein declares that he definitely believes in freedom but he does not believe in unlimited freedom because according to Einstein unlimited freedom is not possible, freedom has to be limited.
Further, Einstein goes on to talk about his ideas and goals in life. These are for three in number truth, goodness and beauty. Einstein says that friendship should be made only with like-minded people. Einstein at time prefers to be alone so that he can think well. Einstein now moves to another factor and that is the system of Government. According to Einstein democracy if practiced correctly, is the best for of Government for any country. While talking about Governments, he goes on to declare that he is totally against war and he has always favoured peace.
He goes on to say that he loves to solve the mysteries of the Universe. As such he was fond of solving all mysteries. In the end, Einstein is very grateful for the fact that he is still living and that he is trying to contribute in solving the mysteries of this Universe.
“This life which seems so fair, is like a bubble blown up in air.”

After the study of this thought-provoking essay, we come to the conclusion that Einstein is really a great man. He has profound love for humanity. He is a genius and has philosophical bend of mind. In short, we can say that Einstein is a man of keen observation, great wisdom, deep insight and profound knowledge.

Class XII, ENGLISH, Summary, "The Devoted Friend"

The Devoted Friend

The Devoted Friend is an interesting short story of two friends having different temperaments and different conceptions of devoted friendship written by Oscar Wilde. He was one of the most eminent and elegant writers of the 19th century. The story is both tender and profound in its treatment of the comically one-sided friendship between poor Hans and the rich Miller.
The storty is narrated by a songbird to a water rat and a duck. There are two characters in the story little Hans and Hugh the miller.
Little Hans was a simple, innocent, kind-hearted and sincere fellow. He was a hard working gardener and earned his living by selling the fruits and flowers into the market of the town. Hugh the miller was a rich but clever and selfish man. He always claimed that he was a devoted friend of little Hans.
In the summer season, the miller would go to the garden of Hans and bring plenty of flowers and fruit without making him any payment. He never gave anything to Hans. Hugh the miller repeatedly exploited Hans. Sometimes, he sent Hans to Market with a heavy sack of flour. Sometimes, he asked Hans to drive his flock of sheep to the mountains for grazing. He would also ask Hans to work on his flourmill or do some work of repair in his barn.
In return, he merely made a promise to give his invalid and damaged wheelbarrow to Hans, free of cost. The miller called it an act of great generosity. Unfortunately, the promise was never materialized.
It is so happened that on a rough and stormy night, Hugh the miller sent little Hans to bring the doctor because the miller’s little son hand been seriously injured. As usual, little Hans showed compliance and left for the doctor’s home as he could never think of displeasing the miller. When poor Hans was returning with the doctor, the strom grew more fierce and he lost his way in the dangerous rocky region. He stranded on the moor and fell into a deep pool of water, where he was drowned. In this way, the innocent fellow lost his life for the sake miller.
The story suggests that friendship is a noble and respectable bond based on bilateral love and cooperation. Mutual interest is the essence of true friendship.

Class XII, ENGLISH, Summary, "Act III of the Silver Box"

Act III of the Silver Box

John Galsworthy is a famous novelist and playwright whose works contains a great deal of criticism of British society, particularly of the values of the well-to-do professional class. Like all the writers of the time, John Galsworthy is a satirist and at bests an ironist.
The Silver Box is a powerful and bitter play. Through the character of James Jones, Galsworthy criticizes the British society in which the rich are favoured by law and injustice is done to the poor.
“Law grinds the poor, and richmen rule the law.”
- Oliver Goldsmith

Mr. Barthwick was a member of the British Parliament. He posed himself as a social reformer who seemed to have great sympathy and compassion for the poor and Dow-trodden people. In a drunken state his dissolute son, Jack Barthwick, stole a lady’s purse. He returned home very late at night. James Jones, a poor and jobless person, happened to pass near the house of Mr. Barthwick. He saw Jack Barthwick trying to find the keyhole on the wrong side of the door. He helped Jack in unlocking the door of his house. As Jack had nothing to give him, so he invited him to have a drink. Jones entered the house with Jack. He drank whisky excessively and under the influence of whisky he stole a sliver cigarette box and the same purse, stolen by the jack. In the morning Thomas Marlowe, Butler to Barthwick, found the silver box missing. He communicated the loss to Mr. Barthwick who sent him to the police station to lodge the report of the theft.
The police acted promptly and arrested Jones along with his innocent wife who was employed as a charwoman in the house of Mr. Barthwick. Jones became violent and resisted the police when they arrested his wife who did not commit any crime. The police took her into custody because they suspected that she might have stolen the silver box or helped her husband in entering the house of Mr. Barthwick. Owing to the scoundrel Mrs. Jones lost her job and had to vacate the house in which she lived with her three children.
Jones was aried in the court of law for stealing the silver cigarette box and making an assault on the police. He was sentenced to one month’s imprisonment with hard labour. He protested against this injustice, for Jack who committed the identical crime, was not punished. He says to Magistrate:
“Call this justice? What about him? He got drunk! He took the purse. But its his money got him off-Justice!”
Mrs. Jones was also tried for stealing the silver box and helping her husband in obtaining access to the house of Mr. Barthwick. But the charges leveled against her could not be proved and she was acquitted. At the end of the trial she looked at Mr. Barthwick with a silent request for re-employment but he made a gesture of refusal and hurried out of the court. Thus the poor family was ruined completely.
The dramatist concludes that it is the poor people who always suffer and pass through mental and physical torture and they are the one, who face these adversities with patience and endurance. While the opulent make use of their resources and enjoy a trouble free life even after committing the most abhorrent crimes.
“How easy it is to judge rightly after one sees what evil comes from judging wrongly.”
- Elizabeth Gaskell

Class XII, ENGLISH, Summary, "Twenty Minutes with Mrs. Oakentubb"

Twenty Minutes with Mrs. Oakentubb

Twenty Minutes with Mrs. Oakentubb is an effective little piece of emotional drama written by Frank Arthur. Frank Arthur is known for his achievements as a civil servant, novelist and scriptwriter.
It is a rare specimen of a melodrama filled with thrill and suspense. The play is notable for the skilful manipulation of suspense. The story is based on the theme of revenge, crime and punishment.
“Revenge renders ears deaf.”
- William Shakespeare

It was a stormy winter’s evening of 1955. A heavily wrapped lady entered the waiting room of a country railway junction, followed by a porter who lighted the fire for her, as it was very cold. Soon a male passenger also entered the waiting room and came near the fire in order to warm himself. The porter told them that they had to wait for 20 minutes for the arrival of the train, bound for Stainthorpe. After the departure of the porter the two passengers were left alone.
They were strangers to each other, but soon they started a conversation to while away the time.
The man told the woman of two half-minute meetings, which had the most profound effect on his life. The first meeting took place in June 1953 in Korea. He was severely wounded and wanted to die. He fainted and when he regained consciousness, he saw a young Korean girl bending over him. She smiled at him and her smile gave him the courage to live. He smile made him realize what his daughter would have been like if she had lived. She was killed along with her mother in a road accident. They were overrun by a car, which was being driven recklessly by Mrs. Judy Oakentubb. She was held guilty of manslaughter and was sentenced to 18-month imprisonment but according to him it was a plain deliberate heartless murder. So, he was going to Stainthorpe in order to avenge the murder of his wife and daughter.
The woman told the man that his wife and daughter were killed in the accident. It was not a murder. But he did not agree. He said that she was drunk and was driving the car very fast to reach the coast from Stainthorpe. She led a bet with one of her companies to cover the long distance within 15 minutes while it could be covered in half an hour. She drove recklessly and killed his wife and daughter. So, it was a deliberate murder.
By chance he read the name of Mrs. Oakentubb, written on the label of the suitcase, which belonged to the lady who was conversing with him. He was sure that the lady, who was standing before him, was Mrs. Judy Oakentubb. He pulled a revolver from his pocket and pointed at her. Mrs. Judy Oakentubb recoiled and told him that she had been in perpetual agony ever since the accident took place. She posed herself as a repentant lady over the tragic accident. She instead of asking for her life implored for her death that according to her was a mean of escaping from the mental torture.
Believing in her statement, he decided to leave her and give her no punishment, as living with a sense of self-reproachment was an ideal punishment for the lady. He says:
“Yes! You are right! It would be a greater punishment to live.”
He pocketed his revolver and walked out leaving her sobbing. As soon as he left the room, she came to her real self. She expressed her hatred for the man observing her from outside. He opened the door suddenly, raised the revolver and shot her dead. It is rightly said:
“Often a clever culprit is caught by the trap of his own blunders.”

Those who cause tragedies in thee lives of others inevitably meet the tragic end. Beyond any shadow of doubt an evildoer is the engineer of his own catastrophe.

Class XII, ENGLISH, Summary, "The Day the Dam Broke"

The Day the Dam Broke

The Day the Dam Broke is a fascinating, captivating, remarkable humorous story written by the great American humorist James Groves Thurber. He has written a number of witty and humorous articles.
In this story, the writer has depicted the mob mentality with great dexterity. He has narrated the experiences of his Aunt Edith Taylor and his own experiences about the “Great Run” of the afternoon in Columbus city. This short story is a good example of Thurber’s sardonic but affectionate view of human behavior.
“Humour is an emotional chaos recollected in tranquillity.”
- James Thurber

James Thurber recalls an interesting incident of his early childhood when he lived in Columbus City, situated near the Ohio River in the U.S.A. All of a sudden, on March 12, 1913 a rumour spread that the River Ohio was in flood and the water would rush towards the city as the dam had broken. The people became panicky after hearing the rumour and came out on the High Street. They started running towards the East for safety with out confirming the news about the flood. In calamity ever rumour is believed. Men, Women and children were running helter-skelter towards the East.
Normal business was going on in the market, but when the rumour spread about the flood, the people who were busy in selling and buying, started to run in utter confusion for saving their lives. Two thousand people were abruptly in full right. Go East! Go East! The Dam has Broke was the clarion cry, being heard everywhere.
The writer’s aunt Edith Taylor was in a movie theatre, she wrote:
“When I reached Grant Avenue, I was so spent that Dr. H.P Mallory passed me, there was a boy behind him on roller-skates and Dr. Mallory mistook the swishing of the skates for the sound of rushing water. He eventually reached the Columbus School for Girls where he collapsed.”

The panic-stricken people ran out for safety leaving fires burning and food cooking and doors wide open. Some of the people covered the distance 12 miles in order to save their lives. At last the military men riding through the city in motor-lorries announced that the news about the flood was false and that the dam had not broken. At first the announcement added to the confusion and increased the panic, for many stampedes the militiamen were announcing, The Dam has now Broken! Thus setting an official seal of authentication on the calamity. But after repeated announcements the misunderstanding was removed and order was restored. The people heaved a sigh of relief when they heard that the dame had not broken. The people returned to their homes and started their normal business the next day, but they did not joke about the happenings of the previous day. It is rightly said:
“How much have cost us the evils that never happened.”
- Jeferson

This story is a good study of human behaviour. It shows that men lose all there wit and wisdom in a panic. In fact, this humorous story is also a satire on human follies.
“The mob has many heads but no brains.”
- Rivarol

Through all the funny references Thurber has tried to point out that all of us no matter how serious and sober, behave in one and the same idiotic manner when we are thrown in a trying situation
“Stuffing the ear with false report.”
- William Shakespeare

Thurber has presented, in this story, his sardonic but affectionate view of life. It is a commendable effort to tell something serious through fun and laughter. But in fact the author has tried to study human characters thrown in difficult and trying circumstances because:
“Man alone suffered so cruelly in the world that he was compelled to invent laughter.”
- Nietzche

Class XII, ENGLISH, Summary, "Pakistan and the Modern World"

Pakistan and the Modern World

After the creation of Pakistan in the year 1950, Mr Liaquat Ali Khan went on an official tour of the United States of America. His mission was to introduce to the Americans the newly formed country of Pakistan, to tell the Americans all about Pakistan and to bring the two countries close together. This chapter Pakistan and the Modern World, actually is the explanation of Liaquat Ali Khan’s speech at the Kansas city, while he was thanking them for the degree bestowed on him..
While Mr.Liaquat Ali Khan was in the United States of America, on this trip the University of Kansas City awarded him an honorary degree for his services rendered to his country.
As far as the contents of the speech are concerned, these are what that makes the speech all important and interesting. Mr. Liaquat Ali begins by thanking the administration of the University of Kansas City and tells them that he will talk about Pakistan in his speech because his mission is to make the Americans familiar with the history and origin of Pakistan. Mr. Liaquat Ali then goes on to say that there are similarities between the fight for independence that the Muslims waged against the British and the fight that the Americans put up for their independence. Thus there are similarities between fight for Indians and Muslims and Americans.
After that Liaquat Ali goes on to explain as to why the Muslims wanted a separate homeland and the Muslims of Indian Sub-Continent were not willing to line with Hindus. There are religious, economic and social differences between the Hindus and the Muslims. Further more, Mr. Liaquat Ali goes on to say that many people did not agree to the partition of India. However, later on they realize that the creation of Pakistan has made the Asian Continent more stable, also Mr. Liaquat Ali goes on to explain what advantages the creation of Pakistan has brought about in the region. According to Mr. Liaquat Ali whereas in other countries there is backwardness, inner confusion, discontentment, religious difference but in Pakistan there is no internal struggle, no religions difference and there is democracy in the country. Mr. Liaquat Ali Khan then praises the Pakistani nation and declares that when Pakistan was created there was no proper government, no money and no security, but it was due to the hard work and unity of Pakistani nation that we managed not only to survive but also to progress.
Mr. Liaquat Ali Khan makes yet another point while introducing Pakistan to the Americans, he declares that even the Pakistani people have duties to fulfill towards their country, the duty of each Pakistani is to guard and protect his freedom and the freedom of his country. After that Mr. Liaquat goes on to make a very very important point. He declares that in order to progress we must have strong faith in our religion and at the same time we must accept scientific technology and progress. Then Mr. Liaquat Ali goes on to suggest that we must stay away from war and we must follow the progress of the West and take from the West what we considered to be good.
Finally, he requests to the Americans to help Pakistan on the path of progress and the United States could do that be lending its fund of knowledge and progress to backward Pakistani nation. Mr. Liaquat Ali Khan ends the speech on an optimistic and hopeful note wanting Pakistan and United States to be friends for all times to come.

Class XII, ENGLISH, Summary, "Reflections on the Re-Awakening East"

Reflections on the Re-Awakening East

The chapter entitled Reflections on the Re-awakening East, has been written by Bertrand Russel. He is the most outstanding writer and thinker of our time. His more popular 3orkds have been notable for their introduction of scientific attitudes into the discussion of politics and sociology.
According to Russel, power has never stayed permanently in the world. Initially at the beginning the East and the Eastern nations had more power then the West but gradually the power slipped out of the hand of the Eastern nations and went into the hands of the Western countries. The West became all powerful and the East lost its power.
This chapter has been written in the year 1954 so Russel is talking about the conditions of year 1954. When Russel is talking about the conditions of year 1954. When Russel wrote this essay in 1954, he thought that power was once again passing out from the hands of the West and the East was beginning to re-awaken and to gain power, therefore, what we have learnt so far is that power changes from hand to hand. Russel is expressing his thoughts and his opinions as to what the Eastern nations should do on their re-awakening Russel is offering advice to the Eastern awakening.nations as to what should they do in order to prosper and be successful.
First and foremost Russel advises the Eastern awakening nation not to adopt communism because Russel describes communism as a poison. The next advice that he gave them is to adopt industrialization and mechanization because according to Russel any country that does not accept industrialization will lag behind. He advises the Eastern countries to stay away from war, to struggle for peace.
The next advice is not to follow the West blindly but to take from the West what is good and to leave out what is bad. After that Russel goes on to declare that Asia has some excellent and major civilizations. These civilizations should never be mixed with each other. Furthur more another excellent advice that Russel gave was that it is definitely agreed that we can’t progress without mechanization yet the fact remains that side by side with mechanization we should not forget poetry, arts, friendship, character-building, all these come side by side. We must see to it that on one hand we progress in science and on the other hand we build our moral value.
Last but not the least, Russel concludes with the optimistic thought that the Eastern and Asian nations shall contribute to the betterment and the progress of the world and will not imitate the mistakes of the West.

Friday, October 12, 2012

Class XII, ENGLISH, Reference, "The World As I See It"

The World As I See It

The passage given for contextual explanation is extracted from the lesson The World as I See It, written by Albert Einstein.
About the Author
Albert Einstein is generally regarded as the greatest mathematical physicist of the current century and one of the greatest scientists of all times. He was awarded the Noble Prize for Physics in 1921. He is bold and straightforward man and expresses his views freely and unhesitatingly. His work rests very little on laboratory work but more on theories and philosophies. His writings for the layman are few, but they include an introduction to the general theory of relativity. His writings demonstrate his admirable capability.
About the Essay
The World as I See It is an interesting essay in which Albert Einstein has expressed his personal views about the purpose and ideals of life; democracy and dictatorship; war and peace; mystery and religion.
“What an extraordinay ——————- Tie of sympathy.”

In this particular passage Albert Einstein says that our position in this world is unusual. Man is mortal. We have come into this world for leading a very short life. What is the purpose of man’s creation? When we deliberate over this fundamental question we come to the conclusion that life is not purposeless. There is a purpose in life. As far as the practical life is concerned we live for our fellowmen. In the first place we live for those who are known to us personally and our happiness depends on their smiles and welfare. In the second place we live for those who are not known to us personally but a tie of sympathy binds us with them.
“I am strongly drawn ————– Physically and mentally.”

In this thought-provoking passage Albert Einstein expresses his personal views on simple life. He strongly believes that one should lead a simple life as limple life is conducive to health and happiness. Plain life keeps a person fit physically and mentally. If a man leads a luxurious life, he has to run after worldly wealth and remains worried because he always thinks of earning more and more money by fair means or foul. Thus he has no peace of mind and peace of heart. His health deteriorates due to worries and cares. But if a man leads a simple life, he has no worries and cares and leads a pleasant, peaceful and contented life.
Einstein also expresses his views on class differences which, he thinks, are contrary to justice and are based on force and compulsion. Thus we can say that he is strongly opposed to class differences and perhaps he wants to say that he is strongly opposed to class differences and perhaps he wants to say that these class differences must not exist in any human society. He really believes in equality and fraternity.
“The ideals which have ——– Seemed to me contemptible.”
In this particular passage Einstein has expressed his views on the ideals of his life. His ideals have been Truth, Goodness and beauty which have brightened up his ways of life and have given him a new courage to face the problems, difficulties and hardships of life with a smile.

Beauty is truth, truth beauty __ that is all
ye know on earth, and all ye need to know

Thus we see that the ideals which Einstein cherishes, are high ideals of life. He loves these ideals because they give him spiritual pleasure. In other words these ideals give spiritual pleasure to every person who loves these ideals.
He, then, talks about the sense of fellowship with man of like mind. He wants to say that life is colourless and meaningless if a man does not enjoy the company and fellowship of like minded people and if a person is not preoccupied with the objective, which is not attainable in the field of art and scientific research. We are really startled when Einstein says that property, outward success and luxury are the ordinary objects of human endeavor. We are at a loss to understand when he finally says than these objects have always seemed to him contemptible. But we are deliberate over the philosophical ideas; we come to the conclusion that Albert Einstein is right.
“An autocratic system ————- Succeeded by scoundrels.”
In this passage Albert Einstein, expresses his views with reference to democracy and dictatorship. Condemning the autocratic system he says that it soon degenerates as it is always based on cruelty, oppression and force. It is an undeniable fact that people of low morality believe in force and in autocratic system cruel rulers, rule over the people with high-handedness. They do not care for the moral values and give no importance to the welfare of the people.
Einstein believes that it is an invariable rule that intelligent cruel rulers are succeeded by people of low morality.
In other words Einstein means to say that an autocratic system of government is not beneficial to the people because of the values. It is very difficult for people to breathe freely in dictatorship, as the people do not enjoy any kind of freedom.
Einstein loves democracy and hates dictatorship. He is a humanist and wants to see each and every individual happy. So he wants that the rulers must rule the country with love so that the people may breathe freely and live happily.
“War seems to me a mean——– the schools and the press.”
In this passage Albert Einstein expresses his views on war and peace. He says that war seems to him a mean and hateful thing. He would rather die than take part in such a hateful business. He hates war because he is humanist. He is fully aware of the fact that thousands of innocent people are killed mercilessly and purposelessly in the war. No doubt he hates war but does not hate human beings. He thinks that man is not blood-thirsty and the curse of war would have disappeared long ago if the sound sense of the nations had not been corrupted by political and commercial interests. He means to say that war break out because the commercial and political interest of various nations are involved.
Einstein is a great lover of humanity. He believes that the highest purpose of a man’s life if to serve humanity and people must live in peace and tranquality. He wants to say that if nations ignore their commercial and political interests and if mankind learns a degree of mutual respect, this world will become a place of happiness and nations will not think of waging wars against each other. No doubt Einstein is a noble man and has noble ideas. He is not only a humanist but also a pacifist.
“The fairest thing ————— that engendered religion.”

In this philosophical and thought-provoking passage Albert Einstein says that the experience of the mysterious objects given birth to art and science. Curiosity is the emotion, which is found in almost all persons but if there is a person who is devoid of curiosity and mystery, is just like a dead wood and a snuffed-out candle. It means that such a person can’t do any thing in the world. A snuffed-out candle is useless as it cannot brighten up the ways of the world and it cannot guide anyone. Similarly a person devoid of curiosity and mystery is of no help to any one. Einstein further says that it was the experience of mystery that gave birth of religion.
In this passage Albert Einstein has expressed his views on religion and mystery without any mental reservation. He is a straightforward man and whatever he has experienced he has described it unhesitatingly. He rightly says that curiosity of man has led to the birth and growth of true art and true science. He has deliberated almost on every aspect of human life and has drawn certain conclusions with which he has acquainted us. We are greatly impressed by profound and philosophical thoughts, which he has expressed in this passage and we spontaneously utter that Einstein is a learned broad-minded, sagacious and straightforward man.
“Mystery is Beautiful. It becomes more Beautiful when mixed with fear.”
- Jesica Adams

Class XII, ENGLISH, Reference, "Reflections from the Re-Awakening East"

Reflections from the Re-Awakening East

These lines have been extracted from a thought – provoking lesson of our prose text Reflections from the Re-Awakening East, written by Bertrand Russelll.
About the Author
Bertrand Russelll was an outstanding mathematician, writer and thinker of our time. He is best known for introducing scientific attitude in politics and sociology. He was a sincere advocate of technical aid to Asia.
About the Essay
In this lesson Russelll has tried to present a historical study and analysis of the reemergence of the East as a powerful influence in the World after centuries of subjugation and exploitation by the Western Imperialism. He praises the people of the East and criticizes the people of West. He admires the Muslims of Spain, who had a brilliant culture, at that time when the Christian Europe was sunk in barbarism. He has expressed his hopes and apprehensions as regards to what Asia should and what it will do after it has achieved both its political and economic independence. He also desires that the East will use its power to promote peace, justice and happiness in the World.
“Those who deny freedom to others deserve it not for themselves.”
- Abraham Lincoln

“The supermacy of the East ————– a brilliant culture.”

Here in these lines, Russelll is presenting the invariable process of history in which power has been changing hands between the East and West. After the down fall of the Roman Empire and the destruction of the German Empire, leadership in power and the culture passed into the hands of the East which came to be ruled by the Muslims and Chinese between 7 and 10 century A.D.
“Progress depends on memory. Those who can not learn from their past (history) are condemned to repeat it.”
- George Santayana

The author states that the Muslims established their superiority to the Europeans not in warfare but also in the field of science, philosophy, poetry and the arts. Both the Muslims and the Chinese were enjoying a glorious period of culture and civilization during this period. This was the time when the Europeans were living a totally barbarous life. Russelll deplores that Europeans out of heir sheer narrow mindedness call this period “The Dark Age.” But actually it was only Christian Europe that was sunk in darkness because the “Mohammadan World” including Spain flourished with a glorious culture.
“Study the past, if you want to devine the future.”
- Confucius

“There are somethings ———- growth of industrialism.” or
“It is useless ———————independence.”

The above lines have been taken from that part of the chapter where the author has discussed the part played by science and technology in the rapid progress of the nations of the world. At the same time he extremely opposes the unfair use of science and adulation and monopoly of mechanization in human society.
While he disapproves of science and machinery as bad and undesirable on account of being cruel to man and hostile to beauty, he at the same time belie4ves that they are vital for progress and survival in the modern world. This is evident from the fact that those who lag behind in industrial progress are left poor and backward and thus have difficulty in preserving their independence at home and fail to enjoy and honorable position in the world. He refers to the amazing advancement of Great Britain in the early 19th century and that of the U.S.A. and Russia in the present century. These states enjoyed supremacy by virtue of their complete and virtual control over industrial production.
“He that will not apply new remedies must expect new evils: for time is the greatest innovator.”
- Francis Bacon

“The most sinister ————— on the side of peace?”

Here, in these lines, Russell is giving his opinion about the potential and probable use of scientific technique by the newly independent state of Asia. He warns the people of Asia that the worst and the most evil use of scientific knowledge has been in inventing horrible and destructive weapons of war. But he hopes that Asians will learn from the mistakes of the West and will use their new power of science and technology for peaceful purposes.

“The most persistent sound that reverberates through men’s history is the heating of the war drums.”
- Arthur Koestler

He realizes that it is difficult to predict what Asia will do when it rises as a powerful influence in the world but he is definite as to what Asia should do to fulfil its responsibilities in the community of nations torn with wars and conflicts. This is in tune with the author’s belief that:
“Wars should belong to the past, it should find no place on humanity’s agenda for the future.”
- John Paul II

“Modern cosmopolitanism ————— Culture of the past.”

Here in these lines, Russell is commenting on the evil aspect of science and machinery. Being an enlightened thinker, her appreciates science and machinery because they have given rise to a new culture, which is universal in quality as the life-style of the whole world, is conditioned by the modern inventions of science and technology.
But the author laments that these two new elements of modern culture are being forced upon older cultures. By nature they prove cruelly more powerful since they have a tendency to destroy not only what is bad but also what is good and valuable in the culture of the past.
“The greatest tragedy of science and technology is the slaying of the beauteous nature by an ugly machine.”
- T.H. Huxley

The result is that due to the decay of the older values of life, man has become selfish, materialistic and parochial. So Russelll admonishes the nations of the East against the harms and perils of misuse of science. He says that mechanization itself is not limit and its sole purpose should be nothing except provoking and enhancing human happiness, minimizing their suffering and creating a sound atmosphere for living. Lord Russelll devices a strongly condemns the undue importance and usage of scientific inventions that are likely to make life dull and colourless. Russelll also believes:

“Science without conscience is the death of the soul and leads to greed and pride.”
- Francois Rabelais

“If human life —————— the simple joys of life.”

“Ill fares the land to hastening ills a prey, where wealth accumulates, and men decay.”
- Oliver Goldsmith

Here, in these lines, Russell criticizing science and technology as cruelly powerful elements of modern scientific culture is suggesting ways and means to make modern life more pleasant and enjoyble.
He advises that if we want our life to remain tolerable, we should not allow science and technology to dominate over all the departments of our life. According to him poetry, music, arts, love and simple joys of life were the important elements of our older culture. We must preserve them in our modern life at every cost because with them, our life is dull, dark and intolerable. The author believes that:
“The purpose of human existence is not ease but to kindle a light of joy.”
- Albert Einstein

“Your independence ————— Mistakes of the West.”

“The love of liberty is the love of others; the love of power is the love of ourselves.”
- William Hazlitt

Here, in these lines, Russell is directly addressing the newly independent people of Asia and is giving them a valuable piece of advice also their future course of life. He points out that now when the world is divided into two rival blocks filled with bitter enmity, it is certain that the big powers are not going to interfere in the political stability and economic progress of the Asian countries. Thus the Asians would find it easy to safeguard their freedom. But it is also feared that once they rise as a great power they can develop a desire to exploit the backward people and threaten the independence of Europe. The Author believes that:
“Those who deny freedom to others deserve it not for themselves.”
- Abraham Lincoln

Here, in these lines, Russell like a broad-minded pedagogue and a moral preacher is giving to the new democracies of Asia a valuable piece of advice also how they should use their power of science and technology.
He desires that after becoming free, Asians have to play a positive role. They have to use their power to contribute to he happiness and promote the cause of justice in the world. The author hopes that the East will learn from the mistakes of the West and will help the poor and the backward in their freedom and progress rather than exploit them for their selfish purposes.
Russell also hopes that Asia will prove this through their own examples that unless nations, rich and poor, learn to respect each other, there can be no peace and happiness in the world. The author believes that:

“To keep a lamp burning we have to keep putting oil in it.”
- Mother Teresa

Class XII, ENGLISH, Reference, "Pakistan and The Modern World"

Pakistan and The Modern World

The given lines have been extracted from Pakistan and the Modern World, a fine example of oratory and a true chronicle of history. It is in fact a marvelous piece of speech delivered by the Quaid-e-Millat, Liaquat Ali Khan, the first Prime Minister of Pakistan, at the Kansas University in 1950 when the beloved leader paid a state visit to the U.S.A.
About the Speaker
Liaquat Ali Khan supported Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah during the crucial years of Muslim struggle for the birth of Pakistan. In 1947, he became the first Prime Minister of the Muslim homeland. He was a great patriot, who had deep compassion for human sufferings. He was awarded an honorary degree at the University of Kansas, USA for his remarkable services to his nation and to the cause of freedom and democracy.
About the Speach
According to the people and government of the United States, Liaquat Ali Khan, in this speech wants to acknowledge and thank them for the conferment of an honorary degree upon him. Since Pakistan was then not yet three years old, he thought it proper to introduce Pakistan to them. Befitting the occasion, he also thought it fit to describe the causes and the benefits of the division of vast sub continent and the creation of Pakistan. He describes the religious, social and economic differences with the Hindus, which forced the Muslims to demand a separate homeland for themselves. Finally he exhorts the West to held in the economic freedom and political stability of Asia. He also inspires the people of Pakistan to work harder at the double pace in order to catch up with the advance nation safeguard their independence and achieve their rightful and honorable place the4 the world.
“Progress and freedom, far from consisting in change, depends on memory. Those who can not remember the past are condemned to repeat it.”
____________ George Santayana

“As the day ————– minority.” or
“Long experience ————-change of masters.” or
“But since ——————— Eclipsed.”

Here, in these historical lines, our veteran leader, Liaquat Ali Khan, is advocating the cause of the Muslims minority against the dominating majority of the Hindus in the undivided India on the eve of independence from the British rule.
He says that when the time of freedom from the British rule drew at hand, it became more and more crystal clear that the Muslims were not going to enjoy the real fruits of freedom. On the contrary, they were afraid that they would be forced to live as a permanent group of defeated and subjected minority. Thus, freedom from the foreign rule would mean to the Muslims not freedom but only a change of the ruling hand. He draws this conclusion on the basis of their age-old experience testified by history since Muslims had been living with the Hindus for many centuries.
Liaquat Ali Khan also points out the fact that difference of religion between the two nations was not the only cause of division of India. The Muslims had a number of very serious differences with the Hindus nation such as difference of culture, ideology of life, social system, economic system and so on. The Muslims were monotheists and the Hindus believed in more than one God. They believed in caste system while the Muslims believed in equality of all men. The Muslims rightly feared that the Hindus majority would deny then basic human rights and treat them like slaves. They would have to live in the undivided India as a “perpetual political minority” having no hope, no respect and no future.
Liaquat Ali Khan is here trying to give vent to the genuine doubts and apprehensions. Muslims had about their political and economic future had they lived with the Hindus in the undivided India particularly after independence from the British rule.
“Those who deny freedom to others, deserve it not for themselves.”
“It was for these reasons ——————- at that time.

Here in these pithy and powerful lines, our veteran leader, Liaquat Ali Khan, is trying to apprise the American people of the reasons for and exigencies behind the Muslims’s demand for a separate home of their own.
“We wanted a home,
Home, home, sweet, sweet home!
There is no place like home
All must have a home of their own.”
- J.H. Payne

He describes the differences of religion, culture and economic institutions, which had made it difficult for the Muslims to continue to live with the Hindus. Above everything, it was the fear of being reduced into a perpetual political minority that forced the Muslims to demand a separate homeland for themselves. According to him this demand was very genuine and reasonable as it was in the interest of both the Muslims and the Hindus. Above all, it was in the interest of the World peace. But Liaquat Ali Khan regrets that the Hindus leaders apposed this because it was against their dream of a greater India.
“How does it feel
To be without a home
Like a complete unknown
Like a rolling stone?”
- R.A. Zimmerman

The beloved leader is here leading the case of the Muslims and is justifying their demand on both human and geo-political grounds. Liaquat Ali Khan says:
“We believed then and we believe now that the demand of the Muslims in British India to have a separate state of their own was, both on human and geo-political grounds, a very reasonable demand.”

“For us to be undemocratic ———- Demand for Pakistan.”

Here in these searching lines, our beloved leader is trying to visualize the ethical basis and ideological grounds, which inspired the foundation of the new state of Pakistan. He says that Pakistan is based upon the belief in God, democracy, justice and peace. Muslims of South Asia demanded a separate homeland for themselves because they wanted to practice their faith and their believe.
“Man is by his constitution a religious animal.”
- Edmund Burk

Mr. Khan emphasizes that our people did not have to learn or acquire these beliefs, as they were latent in the very ideology. They demanded a new state because they wanted to practice these beliefs free from the close competition of dominating Hindu majority.
According to Mr. Khan Muslims cannot think of overlooking democracy and ignoring human rights. Similarly, they cannot submit to tyranny or aggression because this will mean denying the very ideals of Pakistan. The father of the nation also said:
“You are free, you are free to go to your mosques and to your temples, or to any place of worship in this state of Pakistan.”
- Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah

“What are the demands —————- Great purpose.”

Here in these pithy and powerful lines, the political pedagogue and stateman, Liaquat Ali Khan is trying to visualize the duties and responsibilities of a free people who have achieved their freedom after a great deal of struggle and sacrifice.
“Liberty means responsibility. That is why most people dread it.”
– G.B Shaw
He asserts that it is the duty of all the free people in the World to maintain and safeguard their won feedom first. This according to hims is not selfishness or narrow-mindedness. He adds that if they fail in this duty, they desecrate and disgrace the piety of freedom. He exhorts the Muslims to be alert and watchful in order to keep their hard-earned freedom safe and secure. He also urges them to work hard at the double pace to achieve prosperity and strengthen the foundation of freedom. He emphasizes that today freedom has no real significance for the common people if it does not also mean freedom from want, ignorance and disease.
Liaquat Ali has here tried to give a new meaning and a new interpretation to the concept of freedom as viewed in the context of the fast changing conditions of the present day World.
“The Condition upon which God has given liberty is eternal vigilance.”
- I.P. Curran

“Our ancient steadfast faith ————- world peace itself.”
Here in these powerful pithy lines, the veteran leader, Liaquat Ali Khan, is describing the political, ideological and economic position of Pakistan as a newly independent state of Asia and is prescribing the formula of a happy marriage of faith and technology for rapid progress.
“Science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind.”
– Albert Einstein
He asserts that our old and firm faith is a source of great strength in this troubled period of human history. But he emphasizes that faith alone is not enough if we want to claim our rightful and honorable place in the World. We must also acquire the valuable knowledge of science and technology. He says that only a happy combination of science with the leading powers of scientific knowledge and modern World. This is the dictate of phase of progress and we can not hold the clock back. Liaquat Ali Khan, a true Muslim and a die hard patriot is trying to set the Muslims on the rails of modern science, the only way to progress and honorable existence in the World.
“Science without conscience is the death of the soul and leads to greed and pride.”
- Francois Rabelais

“We conceive the role —————– if at all.”
Here in these prophetic lines, the veteran leader and stateman, Liaquat Ali Khan is trying to define and determine the role of the Western World in the present day political situation of the World.
According to him the West should demonstrate their broadminded approach and assist the newly independent states of Asia and Africa in their political stability and economic progress. It is the moral and the human duty of the rich and advanced nations to hold in the development of the poor and backward people. This is necessary because they themselves can not enjoy the fullest fruits of their own progress when more that half the World remains backward. The World can not be called truly civilized unless the light of modern knowledge of science reaches the door of every house in the World.
“The purpose of human existence is not ease or comfort but to kindle a light of joy in the dark World.”
- C.J. Jung

Liaquat Ali Khan is here exhorting the people of America and Europe to realize their duty and help the poor people in the name of humanity and for the sake of the world peace.
“Heal the sick, cleans the lepers, raise the fallen, cast out devil, freely you have received, freely you give to others.”
- The Bible

Class XII, ENGLISH, Reference, "Twenty Minutes with Mrs. Oakentubb"

Twenty Minutes with Mrs. Oakentubb

The lines given for contextual explanation are an extract from the play entitled Twenty Minutes with Mrs Oakentubb, written by Frank Arthur.
About the Playwright
In English literature, Frank Arthur is known as a novelist and a playwright. He has the quality to present suspense skillfully. The readers remain captivated till the end, while reading his novels.
About the Story
Twenty Minutes with Mrs. Oakentubb is a powerful drama based on the traditional theme of revenge. It is notable for its skilful manipulation of plot compact with suspense and thrill culminating into a sensational gruesome murder.
A certain Mrs. Judy Oakentubb, a reckless woman corrupted by the evils of high society, to avoid a head on collision with a lorry, drives her car onto the pavement killing two pedestrians. She lies before the magistrate and saves her neck with only eighteen months in a comfortable jail. But she is hunted out by a certain man in the waiting room of a country railway station. He is the husband of the woman and father of the child mercilessly killed by the lady. During the course of a twenty-minutes conversation, the man tries and succeeds in proving his point that what Mrs. Oakentubb did was not any chance or accident but a deliberate heartless murder. He kills her and takes his revenge.
“Revenge is a kind of wild justice.” – Francis Bacon
“You and I are there ————————- and I go mine.”
Here in these lines, Mrs Oakentubb is exchanging her views with the man in the waiting room. She is reflecting upon chance and casual meetings. According to her, we meet thousands of people by chance in our lifetime. They are all strangers to us. They come into our life for a short while and disappear forever once again. We meet people walking in the street, standing behind in the queues and sitting to the theatre. But we forget them the next day and never see them again.
The man agree with the lady but he points out that sometimes one of these chance and casual meetings may prove very important and may even change our life completely. The lady does not agree with the man because she never had such an experience in life. The man proves it by describing one of his own half a minute brief meeting with a Korean girl which changed his life completely.
“But man never violates the laws without suffering the consequences sooner or later.”
- Lydia Child

“I had been wounded ——— I wanted to die any way.” or
“The pain was much worse ——— and the courage to live.”

Here, in these lines, the man is describing one of his own experiences to the lady in the waiting room. He is trying to prove that sometimes one of the chance and casual meetings with strangers may prove very significant to a man and may even change his life completely.
He describes one of his experiences during the Korean-American war. He was seriously injured. He was aching with unbearable pains. He was lying on a stretcher waiting for an ambulance to go to hospital. But he wanted to die because he had no interest and no purpose left in life. His wife and daughter had been killed in a road accident, and he was fed up with his miserable lonely life. Due to severe pain, the wounded soldier fainted. After a few moments, he regained consciousness, he found a little Korean girl bending over him and watching him with sympathy. She did not utter a single word. She simply gave a kind smile and the man responded with a grateful smile. This brief and speechless and silent meeting lasted for a few moments only but it changed his life completely. After the meeting, he wanted to live, he had got an aim and purpose. He had got the strength and courage to live. In fact, the Korean girl had reminded him of his own daughter and he had made up his mind to take revenge from the lady who had crushed his wife and daughter under the wheels of her car.
“She had a choice ———– and she is living today.” or
“You know the road ———— it wasn’t deliberate murder.”

Here, in these lines, the man character called He in the story is describing to Mrs. Oakentubb the situation in which she killed his wife and daughter. He says that Mrs. Oakentubb was coming from a cocktail party and she was over drunk. She had a bet with her vicious friends. She had wagered five pounds that she could drive from “Stainthorpe Cross” to the coast in less than fifteen minutes – a distance that could not be covered in less than half an hour. More over, it was a built–up area. The road was very busy and had many bends and blind corners. It was very hazardous and criminal to drive so fast for such a trifling matter.
The man is trying to prove that what Mrs. Oakentubb did was in no way an accident but it was a clear case of deliberate murder. In a accident there is an element of chance and things are beyond one’s control. She had a choice, she could kill herself or she could drive her on the footpath and kill two innocent pedestrians. The lady argues in her defense but the man talks her down. In the end, she tries to play a trick, which fails, and the man kills her and avenges the death of his wife and daughter.
“I call it murder! ————– and never seeing them again.”
Here, in these lines, the man called He in the story is trying to establish the charge of murder upon the lady. He reminds her that she saved here life at the cost of the life to two innocent people. She avoided a head-on-collision with the lorry by driving her car onto the footpath and upon two innocent pedestrians. It was not an accident because she could save them if she wanted to. But she did not try to save them because they were nothing to her. He also reminds her of notion that chance meetings have no significance. Therefore also, his wife and daughter did not attract her interest and attention. The man keeps on repeating that his wife and daughter were brutally murdered. Because in an accident, there is always the probability of a chance but htheway Mrs. Oakentubb killed his wife and daughter could not be considered as an accident. Also, his wife and daughter had not seen her before the accident took place, if so, they could not make an effort to save their lives.
These lines are significant because here the man tries to arouse the conscience of the lady and force her to admit her guilt.
“ I have’t ——————– painful way.” or
“She has had her punishment —————-But she has had her punishment.” or
“To execute justice ———————–Tonight.”

Here, in these lines, Mrs. Oakentubb is trying to defend herself and redeem her crime by stating that she had already been punished for what she had done. She repeatedly admits that it was criminal on he part to drive so fast in a build-up area. It was also foolish of her to do so far a trifling matter- a small bet. But she insistently says that she got her due punishment. She served a sentence of eighteen months in a jail.
But the man does not agree with her and says that she did not get the punishment she deserved. According to him only eighteen months in the comfortable prison can not be adequate punishment for taking two lives. What she had done was a clear deliberate cruel murder and she deserved a capital punishment for this. He says that he is certain that if she is allowed to live in this world, she will once again start attending cocktail parties.. He tells her that he is going to render real justice by giving her the punishment for her crimes. He will not wait for a long time to render justice. He will kill that heartless woman that very night. He will take his revenge by killing her in the most painful manner.
“Our meeting is almost over ——– to keep you amused.” or
“Confess to me that you loved it ——– your spine all the time.”

Here, in these lines, the male protagonist of the play is trying to give to the lady some moments of relief from the ordeal of nervous tension she was in when she realized that the man had founded her out.
The man tells her that it was just a chance that they were meeting each other, going to the same place and waiting for the same train. Their meeting, which lasted for twenty minutes was over as the train had been signaled. He pretends that to pass these twenty minutes, he told her a story about a certain lady, Mrs. Oakentubb. He asks her if she enjoyed the story because he told the story to amuse and entertain her. He says that he could have spent this time in looking at her but it might not have been a source of pleasure for her. He says that in order to keeps her interest alive, he has told her an interesting and significant story because he knows that women are generally interested in pleasant stories. The important task for men is to please women.
Later, he hardens his attitude and forces her to admit that she enjoyed the story as he marked little twinkles of joys on her face. But the lady declines having enjoyed it. On the contrary she felt horrified because the story was partly true.
“All the time —————- what ever I am doing.” or
“I can see it now ————what I have done.” or
“Kill me————–I cannot endure.”

Here, in these, lines, Mrs. Oakentubb is describing what she call the ordeal of her punishment as having before her eyes the picture of what she had done.
The man has by this time made it clear to the lady that she is the same woman, Mrs. Oakentubb and he is the husband of the woman and father of the child she crushed under the wheels of her car. He has already proved to the lady that what she did was not an accident but a deliberate heartless murder. The lady has become sure that her life is in the balance and there is no way out. In a desperate condition, she tries to play a trick, she pretends before the man that she has been suffereing from a painful ordeal. She always has before her eyes he scene of that event – his wife and daughter lying in a pool of blood. The scene runs before her eyes what ever she is doing and wherever she is going. She can see it more clearly that she can see any thing else. She also pretends that she is fed-up with it and she cannot suffer it any more. She begs him to kill her and remove that picture form before her eyes. The man for a moment believes her and decides to let her live because to kill her would be merciful, as he wanted to kill her in the most merciless manner. But the next moment he discovers her cleverness and his own folly and shoots her to death. Pakistan and the Modern World.