Summary of Kingdom Anamalia(1) PHYLUM PORIFERA
- Porous body
- CaCO3 Silica Skeleton
- Amphiblastula larva
- Diffuse cellular organization
- Spongocoel body cavity
- Radially symmetrical
- Body cavity “Coelentron”
- Pnedoblast – Defensive cells
- Diploblast (Ecto + Endoderm)
- Middle non-cellular layer “Mesoglea”
- Larva – Planula Larva
b- Polyp = Rod shaped
(3) PHYLUM PLATYHELMINTHES
- Totally Parasite
- Flat or Ribbon shaped
- Excretory organs – Proto nephridia (Flame cells)
- Aeoelomate (Absence of body cavity)
- It is the first phylum containing triplo blastic animals
- Usually Hermaphrodites
- Planaria is the only free living member
- High fertility rate
- Bilaterally Symmetrical
- Totally parasitic including 50 human parasite
- Bilaterally symmetrical with cylindrical body
- Two openings (Mouth & Anus)
- Common diseases – Ascariasis, filiariasis (elephantiasis), hook worm infection.
- Metamers (External segmentation)
- Septae (Internal segmentation)
- Setae (Locomotary organs) or cheata
- Digestive, excretory, nervous, reproductive system well developed.
- Respiration through diffusion
- Blood is red with a closed type of circulatory system (with many pulsatile hearts)
- Setae with Parapodia
- Separate sexes
- Sabella (Peacock worm), Nereis (Clam worm)
- Setae without Parapodia
- Pheretima (Earth worm)
- Free living, Ecto or Endo parasite
- Contains a Enzyme hirudin which prevents blood clotting
- Second largest phylum
- Largest invertebrate – Gram squlds
- External hard covering calcium carbonate shell
- A grinding structure radula is present in the buccal cavity
- Thin membraneous covering of the body – mantle
- Respiration through gills
- Locomotary organ a mascular foot
- Larva – Trocophore larva
- A phenomenon torsion is present in which the animal body rotates at the angle of 180˚
- Second largest class of mollusca
- Shell consist of two parts and attached with eachother by hinge joint
- Common examples: Unio, mytilus and pearl oysters
- All members are marine
- Locomotary organ foot transformed into suckers which bears tentacles and arms
- Example: Sepia (cuttle fish), loligo (squids), octopus (devil fish)
- Shell is absent in octopus
- Largest phylum
- One million species
- Metamerically segmented animals
- Blood filled cavity hoemocoel is present
- Blood without haemoglobin (white)
- Respiration: Gills, Trachea or Book lungs
- Excretory organs malphigian tubules
- Nervous system well developed
- Compound erges with sharp vision
- Metamorphosis = developmental changes which transforms a larva into its developed adult form
- Incomplete metamorphosis = egg → nymph → adult e.g. cockroach
- Complete metamorphosis = ® egg ® larva ® pupa ® adult e.g. Butterfly, common, housefly and mosquito
- Moulting (ecdysis)
- Changing over of old exoskeleton and formation of a new one
- Apiculture => Farming of honey bees
- Sericulture => Farming of silk worms
- Limulus (king crab)
- Group of Spiders & Scorpions
- Respiration through book lungs
- Four pair of walking legs
- Class of prawns, shrimps, lobsters, crabs
- Two pairs of antenae, one pair of mandible and two pair of maxilla
- Exoskeleton a large plate of carapase
- Sacculina is the only parasitic member
- Class of millipedes and centipedes
- Body is divided into similar multiple segments
- Largest class (eight lakhs & 50,000 members)
- Study of insects is called entomology
- Three pairs of walking legs
- Pterygota (insects with wings)
- Apterygota (insects without wings)
- Social insects: Ants, termites, honey bees
- Marine animals
- Radially symmetrical
- Pentamerous body
- Water vascular system is present
- Locomotary organs are tube feets = External openings of the water vascular system
- Exoskeleton is made up of calcarious plates in the form of spines
- Power of regemeration is very great
- Phylum echinodermata, hemichordata & chordate posses common ancestor
- Bipinnaria larva is present
- Common e.g. Sea Star (Star fish, Brittle star, Sea dollar, Sea urchins, Sea cucumbers.
- Notochord in future = Vertebral column + Skull
- Dorsal nerve cord = Brain and Spinal cord
- Pharengeal gill slits <–>Aquatic animals = gills
- -> Terrestrial = Internal neck structures
- Only 90 species are present
- Larva is tornaria larva
- Open circulatory system
Brain without any covering or skull
- Also known as tunicates
- Body is enclosed in a sac tunic
- Only embryonical stages show chordate characters
Embryonic as well as adult both forms show typical chordate characters
GROUP CRANIATA OR VERTEBRATA
Brain and spinal cord is enclosed in a hard covering skull & vertebral column respectively
SUB-PHYLUM AGNATHA (ANIMALS WITHOUT JAWS)
- Also known as cyclostomes or jawless fishes
- Totally parasitic
- Teeth are present in the form of rings
- Common e.g. Hag fishes, lamprey
- Teeth may be present or absent
- Amphibians and bird lack teeth
- Fishes, reptiles, mammals do have teeth
Study of fish is known as echthylogy
SUB – CLASS CHONDRICHTHYES (CARTILAGENOUS FISHES)
- Endo skeleton is cartilaginous (soft boned)
- Exoskeleton – Placoid scales
- Fins are heterocircle (different size and shaped)
- Gills without any covering
- Common example (Sharks, Squids, torpedo, electric ray)
- Scolidoen (dog fish) – Small Shark
- Exoskeleton cycloid or ctenoid scales
- Operculum is present (covering of gills)
- Fins are homocircle (Same size and shape)
- Lung fishes are included in order dipnoi.
1. CLASS AMPHIBIA
- Exoskeleton is absent
- Respiration by lungs, gills or skin
- Fertilization is external
- Cold blooded
- Having the characteristics of hibernation & aestivation
- Common e.g. Toads, frogs, salamanders etc.
- Included in group amniota due to the presence of amnion in eggs
- Fertilization is internal
- Exoskeleton is made up of thick horny scales
- Important members are snakes, turtles, lizards, crocodiles and alligators
- Venom → Snake poison
- Fangs → sharped and curved teeth of snake
- Study of birds is called ornithology
- They posses hollow bones (Pneumatic bones)
- Sound producing organ “Syrinx” is present instead of larynx.
- Teeth totally absent.
E.g. Penguin, Kiwi, Ostrich.
Ostrich → Largest Bird.
SUB CLASS CARNIATAE (FLYING BIRDS)
- Wings with interlocking system.
- Common e.g. Peacock, Seagulls, Kites, Falcon etc.
- Archeopetryx → Intermediate specie between reptiles and birds.
- Presence of mammary glands and hairs.
- A muscular organ diaphragm, which separates thoracic cavity from abdominal cavity.
- Teeth are present with different size and shape (heterodont).
b- Canives → Tearing purpose
c- Pre-Molars -> For grinding and holding purpose
d- Molars -> For grinding and holding purpose
SUB CLASS PROTOTHERA (EGG LAYING MAMMALS)
- Also called monotremous.
- Two genera with 3 species
- Common urogenital opening Cloaca is present.
- External ear is absent.
- It is a connecting link between reptiles and true mammals. e.g. spiny anteater, duck billed platypus.
- Give birth to live young ones.
- Special pouch like bag is present in the ventral side of female.
- This pouch is known as marsupial.
- Common e.g. Kangaroo, Kuala bear, Opossums.
- 95% of mammals are included in this group.
- Placenta → connecting link between mother and fetus.
- Common e.g. Camel, donkey, elephant, bat, whale, dolphin.
- Markhor is the national animal of Pakistan also known as Wild goat.