Means of Irrigation
Following are the means of irrigation.
Pakistan is irrigated by five rivers which are Ravi, Satluj, Jhelum, Chenab and Indus. From these rivers canals have been dug. These are very suitable canals for two points of view. Firstly, these rivers come back from ice covered mountains and flow throughout the year. Secondly, they have the same slope.
Rainwater which goes down in our land is collected in the rocks below. In this way a large reserve of water is formed down in the earth. Wells are made to use this water for irrigation. In Punjab a large number of wells have been dug, especially in Tehsil Shakarghar (District Narowal), Gujrat, Lahore and Dera Ghazi Khan Districts. Adequate Irrigation is done by wells. In the valley of Peshawar also irrigation is done by wells. Due to enough rainfall water is not low therefore wells are easily dug.
In the villages where the facility of electricity is available water is drawn out by electric pumps. In this way more water is obtained from wells. So we get more benefits by tube wells.
At many places water collected in ponds. Rain water is collected in them and is used in the hours of need. In the same way in mountain areas, small dams are made to stop water in small canals. Then small canals are dug to bring this water in the fields. These dams are made in less high areas. At some distance from Islamabad, Rawal Dam is made in the same way. By making many such dams in Punjab in the districts of Attock, Rajanpur and Dera Ghazi Khan the deficiency of water has been removed. Similar types of other dams are in provinces of Frontier and Balochistan.
In Pakistan Balochistan is more hot and dry. There is little rainfall small canals become dry in summer due to intencse heat. For irrigation underground houses are made to save water from being absorbed and evaporated. Water is drawn out with the help of Persian wheels and brought to fields.
Importance of Irragation
Irrigation means the artificial way of watering the crops. Irrigation is very important for Pakistan.We have little rainfall therefore we get the help of irrigation in preparing our crops. The progress of our country depends upon the means of irrigation and their progress. All parts except northern mountains depends upon irrigation. 67% of our land is irrigated due to little rainfall. The most important means of our irrigation is our system of canals. Our canals irrigate 70% of our lands while 14% is left for tube-wells, Persian wheels Karez and ponds.