Physical or natural environment is very essential for the prosperity of life on earth. Natural environment means air water and all these things which are essentials for some form of life.
Necassary for a Healthy Life
Clean air to breathe pure water to drink and food free for impurities are necassary for a healthy life.
Unnecassary Changes in Natural Environment
The unsuitable or unnecassary changes in natural environment can be dangerous for the properity of life. Polluted air, dusty water and impure food etc are injurious to human health.
The Present Condition of World
Now a day the whole world is facing the dangerous problem of environmental pollution. The smoke from cars and factories, solid waste, horn or any such noise are the causes of environment pollution.
Effects of Pollutants
Let us now examine the effects of pollutants in air, water, soil and food etc
Composition of Air
The air is composed of nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide etc. These are the bases of existence of every form of life on earth. The oxygen in the air is essential for our life. Where as other gas are necassary for animal and plant life also
Climate also effects our food. The people of mountains use meat, barley and fruit. They need must food to save their body from cold. The people of Punjab use milk, curd and lassi. The main portion of the food of the people living near coastal areas is fish. In the same way there is a large difference of food of villagers and the people living in cities.
Pollutants are Increasing
With the increase in population of the world use of fossil fuel or power resoures like coal, oil etc has increased. By burning these fossil fuels the pollution has increased in the air. Therefore, increase in population and industrial development, environment especially air is being effected.
Water is also necassary as like air. We should drink clean and pure water. In 20th century with the industrial revolution and increase in population the use of water has increased. But now a day the availability of pure water to drink has become difficult.
Contaminates of water
Water has been contaminated by different types of germs, bacteria, virus and other chemicls. So by the use of contaminated water the diseases of stomach are spreading. Insecticides not only damage the soil but they contaminate the food crops and vegetables. Different kinds of fertilizers increase the yield of crops but the upper layer of soil and increase the quantity of chemicals in the production.
Problem of Water Logging and Salinity
In those areas, where rainfall is the irrigation system has made the cultivation of land possible. Due to canal system a large amount of water is absorbed by the ground that raises the level of underground water. This brings the salt of the soil out and effects the fertility of the land and a problem of water logging and salinity is increased. Therefore it is necassary that canals should be cemented to avoid the seepage of water by the ground. Tube wells should be installed so that the ground water level can be lowered in these effected areas.
More trees should be planted on the sides of tides and canals to avoids the flow of soil and decrease the salinity.
Polluted Water of Wastage Material
The polluted water of urban and industrial areas is drained to the rivers and canals. This contaminated water irrigates the agricultural land and gives very harmful results. So this industrial and sewerage water should be recycled and then pumped into the rivers and canals. The strict laws made by the government are not enforced strictly to avoid the disasters.
At this time out of 50 thousand tones of solid waste produced daily only 20-50 percent is transported to clumps properly. Rest of the solid waste becomes the part of water, soil and air etc and damages the life.
To Control this Issue
Government feels that pollution is harmful for human health. Therefore, National Conservation Strategy (NCS) is working for improvement of environment. The main focus is on the improvements of the institutions, legislation and environment awareness among the people, plantation and marine pollution management. The government of Pakistan has allocated more than Rs.287 million rupees for this purpose to control this issue.