Sunday, July 31, 2011

Class IX, PAKISTAN STUDIES, "Evolution of Constitution Making in Pakistan"

The Meaning and Importance of Constitution

Constitution is the collection of those basic principles and laws which explain the rights of the citizens, powers of different departments and their mutual relations. The constitution is the backbone of any country. The country is like a trust for the life, and protection of people of the country. It protects the rights of citizens and proves helpful in running the system of a country in an organized way.

Government of India Act 1935

Government of India Act, 1935 was enforced with little changes and amendments at that time when Pakistan was newly born. The aim was to run the government temporarily till the constitution is made. India Act was prepared by English and this could not fulfill our needs according to our national requirements and interests.

Objective Resolution

The first step towards constitution making in Pakistan was taken in March 1949 when our first legislative council sanctioned Objective Resolution. Liaquat Ali Khan was the Prime Minister of Pakistan. This resolution is the base of our constitution, it is said that Allah is the supreme power and citizens of Pakistan will use it within limits of Quran and Sunnah. No constitution can be practiced in Pakistan which goes against the injunctions of Islam. It is the duty of the government to make arrangements for the Muslims of Pakistan to lead their lives according to the rules of Quran and Sunnah.

Preparation of Constitution

It was hoped that the constitution will be mae within one and a half years after the sanction of Objective Resolution but unfortunately it could not happen. There were other reasons along with the murder of Liaquat Ali Khan. First Legislative Assembly made committee named the Committee of Basic Principles. Instead other sub-committees were also formed. But objective was not achieved and the process of constitution making became very slow.

Secondary Legislative Assembly

On 21st December, 1954 Governor-general of Pakistan Ghulam Mohammad dissolved the Legislative Assembly and the elections of second Legislative Assembly in 1955 were held in an indirect way. This new assembly started the work of constitution making once again.

Class IX, PAKISTAN STUDIES, "Salient Features of Objective Resolution"

Objective Resolution

After the death of Quaid-e-Azam on 11th September 1948, the responsibility of framing the constitution fell on the shoulders of the first Prime Minister, Liaquat Ali Khan.This resolution was passed by the First Constituent Assembly in March 1949 under the leadership of Liaquat Ali Khan.

Salient Features of Objective Resolution

The salient features of the Objective Resolution are as follows:

Sovereignty Belongs to Allah

The resolution clearly laid down that sovereignty over the entire universe belongs o Almighty Allah alone and the authorities to be exercised by the people of Pakistan as a sacred trust.

Federal System

Federal System of Government will be introduced in Pakistan.

Golden Principles of Islam

Principles of democracy, equality, freedom and social justice as laid down by Islam shall be fully observed.

Supreme Authority of the People

The sovereignty of the state will be established through the elected representative of the people.

Life According to the Teachings of Islam

The Muslims shall be provided with opportunity to order their lives in accordance with the teachings and requirements of Islam.

Protection of the Rights of Minorities

The rights and interests of the minorities to freely profess and practice their religion will be protected.

Equal Rights to Citizens

All citizens will enjoy their rights on the principle of equality.

Development of Under Developed Areas

All efforts will be made for the development and progress of the under developed areas.

Independence Judiciary

Judiciary will be independent.

Objective Resolution and Liaquat Ali Khan

While introducing the resolution in the Constituent Assembly, Liaquat Ali Khan said:

“The ideals that promised the demand for Pakistan should form the corner stone of the state. When we use the word ‘Democracy’ in the Islamic sense it pervades all aspects of life. It relates to the system of government and to our society will equal validity because one of the greatest contributions of Islam has been the equality of men.”

Importance of the Objective Resolution

This resolution is of fundamental importance in the history of constitutions making in Pakistan because from the first constitution of 1956 till the constitution of 1973 (present constitution) whatever constitution was framed it was based on this objective resolution. It contains those steps and principles which were to be taken for the fulfillment of the basic aim of the freedom struggle that is the establishment of an Islamic society in Pakistan. Hence, it is a significant document in the constitutional history of Pakistan.
When Liaquat Ali Khan visited America, in the course of his speech at New Orleans, he said,

“We believe in God and his Supreme sovereignty because we believe that civic life must have an ethical content and a higher purpose. But democracy, social justice, equality of opportunity and equality before the law of all citizens irrespective of their race and creed are also aspects of faith with us.”

Basic Principles Committee

After passing the Objective Resolution, the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan set up a “Basic Principle Committee” to spell out proposals for the constitution in accordance with the guidelines contained in the Objective Resolution.


All the above mentioned principles were present in the Objective Resolution that is why this resolution is considered an important event in the constitutional history of the country. It was accepted by all classes of people. It provided a guide line for the future constitutions of Pakistan which were passed in 1956, 1962 and 1973. It consisted of such principles which revealed that character of constitution shall be Islamic.

Class IX, PAKISTAN STUDIES, "Constitution"

QUESTION – 1: What is Constitution? Write the importance of constitution.


Constitution is the supreme law of any state. Every state has its own constitution. Constitution describes the basic structure of state, its organs, legislature, executive and judiciary and their internal relationship.
Need For A Constitution

There are the following points for the need of a constitution.

  • It is necessary for every country.
  • It provides leadership to manage the government affairs.
  • It is the basic law of any state as every state has its own constitution.
  • It describes the basic structure of state, its organs, legislature executive and judiciary and their internal relationship.

Austin’s Definition

Austin describes the definition of Constitution in such a way;

“The form of law which describes the basic structure of state is called constitution.”

Importance of Constitution

The Importance of Constitution can be stated as under:

Supreme Law

Constitution is the supreme and essential law of every state, which cannot be forgotten.

Basic Law

Constitution is the basic law, collection of laws and traditions of any state which cannot be forgotten.

Constitution As A Law

Every individual and institution is subordinate to the Constitution of the country.

Serious Crime

It is the duty of every person to obey the constitution because violation of constitution is a serious crime.

Loyalty To the Constitution

Every Government must follow the constitution and remain loyal to it.

Government’s Duty

Every government performs its duties and functions within constitutional limits.

Basic Object

Constitution defines the basic objective and priorities of the government.

Reflect the Emotions

Constitution reflects the emotions and feelings of the people.

State Policy

Policies and the laws of the state are made in the light of the constitution.

Absence May Cause Chaos and Confusion

Because of absence of constitution it may cause chaos and confusion in the state.

Power and Functions of the Government

Powers and Functions of three important organs of Government are defined in the light of constitutions of the country.

Check the Monopoly

Constitution may check the monopoly of Governmental institutions or agencies.

Protect the Right of the People

Constitution may protect the right of the people and people are equal before law.

Main Object of Creation of Pakistan

Pakistan came into being in the name of Islam. So the people of Pakistan can lead their lives according to the basic principles of Islam.

Class IX, PAKISTAN STUDIES, "Fill in the Blanks" "Resolation Of Pakistan"

Fill in the Blanks

1. Hazrat Shah Walliullah was born in 1703 and was died in 1762.

2. Hazrat Shah Abdul Aziz was born in 1746 and was died in 1824.

3. Syed Ahmed Shaheed was born in 1786 and was died in 1831.

4. Hazrat Shah Walliullah became incharge of Madrassa Rahimiya in 1734.

5. The ruler of Afghanistan Ahmed Shah Abdali rescued Indian Muslims from Marathas.

6. Hazrat Shah Walliullah translated the Holy Quran in Persian Language.

7. Hazrat Shah Walliullah invited the ruler of Afghanistan Ahmed Shah Abdali.

8. Syed Ahmed Shaheed was the disciple of Hazrat Shah Abdul Aziz.

9. Syed Ahmed Shaheed was given the name The Leader of the Faithful.

10. Syed Ahmed Shaheed fought battles with Sikhs.

11. Syed Ahmed Shaheed had started the Jihad Movement.

12. The Sikh ruler Maharaja Ranjeet Singh bribed Pathan leader to kill Syed Ahmed Shaheed.

13. Faraizi Movement was started by Haji Shariatullah.

14. Faraizi Movement was started to eradicate non Islamic customs and traditions among Bengali Muslims.

15. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan started Aligarh Movement.

16. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan published a famous pamphlet Asbab-e-Baghawat -e-Hind.

17. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan established the scientific society at Ghazipur in 1862.

18. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan established Muslim Anglo Oriental School in Aligarh, in 1875.

19. Mohammad Bin Qasim conquered Sindh and introduced Islam in the Sub-Contient.

20. Allama Iqbal presented the Two Nation Theory on 30 December 1930 at Allahabad.

21. In 1885 Allan Octarian Hume formed Indian National Congress.

22. The portion of Bengal was made in 1905.

23. The partition of Bengal was made by Viceroy Lord Curzon.

24. Simla Delegation of Muslims was led by Sir Agha Khan in 1906.

25. Muslim League was established in 1906.

26. Muslim League was established in Baluchistan by Qazi Mohammad Isa.

27. Sir Agha Khan was the first president of Muslim League.

28. Quaid-e-Azam became the life time president of Muslim League in 1934.

29. Gandhi started in Civil Disobedience Movement.

30. On 23rd March 1942, Cripps Mission came to India.

31. Independence Act was passed on 27th July 1947.

32. Lord Mount Batten was the first Governor General of India.

33. Lord Mount Batten was the last viceroy of India.

34. In 1940, Quaid-e-Azam presided the Annual session of Muslim League at Lahore.

35. In 1940, Pakistan Resolution was passed.

36. Kashmiri Muslims got 1/3rd territory of Kashmir in 1948.

37. Over Kashmir issue, three wars were fought between Pakistan and India in 1948, 1965 and 1971

38. In 1961, Indus water treaty was signed between Pakistan and India.

Class IX, PAKISTAN STUDIES, "Short Question and Answers" "Revolation Of Pakistan"

Q.1 Write four sentences about the services of Hazrat Shah Waliullah?

1. he was a great saint and religious scholar. He preached the Muslims of Sub continent.
2. He reconciled the mutual differences among Muslims.
3. He eradicated the bad manners of assemblies.
4. he set the straight forward path for Muslims.

Q.2 Write any four sentences about the services of Hazrat Shah Abdul Aziz?

1. He extended the work of Shah Waliullah.
2. He framed a revolutionary program.
3. He forced Muslims to establish an islamic state.
4. he took severe action against the anti Islamic powers specially Sikhs.

Q.3 Write any four objectives of Syed Ahmed Shaheed’s Jehad Movement?

1. To preach the concept of oneness of Allah.
2. To establish an Islamic State.
3. To preach Jihad.
4. To revive Islamic teachings.

Q.4 Write four sentences on the Faraizi Movement?

1. Haji Shariatullah started Faraizi Movement.
2. The purpose of this movement was to reform the Bengali Muslims.
3. The movement proved useful to eradicate non Islamic customs and traditions of Bengali Muslims.
4. Islamic techniques were also carried out under the Faraizi Movement.

Q.5 What were the causes of down fall of Mughal Empire?

1. Lack of national unity.
2. Highly Centralized Administration.
3. Lack of spirit of Jihad.
4. Educational decline.

Q.6 What were the causes of war of Independence?

1. Political Causes
2. Economic Causes
3. Religious Causes
4. Social Causes

Q.7 Write four sentences about Sir Syed Ahmed Khan.

1. He started Aligarh Movement for social, educational and religious services for Muslims.
2. he wrote a pamphlet to remove the confusions between the British and the Muslims after the war of Independence 1857.
3. he established schools in Muradabad, Gazipur and in Aligarh.
4. He gave the Two Nation Theory.

Q.8 Write four sentences about the Hindus agitation against the partition of Bengal.

1. They felt an insult of the national character of India.
2. They criticized the British Government that they had divided Bengal to weaken the freedom of Congress.
3. They started civil disobedience.
4. They created political disorder and unrest in the country.

Q.9 What demand were made by Muslim in 1906 by Simla Delegation?

1. Muslim demand separate electorate for Muslims.
2. They demanded full representation in services.
3. They demanded aid for the establishment of the Muslim University.
4. They demanded weight age in all elected bodies.

Q.10 Why Muslim league was established?

Ans. There were three main factors for the establishment of Muslim League:
1. To protect and safeguards the Muslim’s interest.
2. To cope with the “Minto Morley Reforms.”
3. To promote Muslim loyalty to British Government.

Q.11 Write four sentences about Lucknow Pact.

1. Congress accepted the idea of separate electorate for the Muslims.
2. No bill offending a particular community should be proceeded within any council if three fourths of the representatives of that community oppose it.
3. Hindu-Muslim unity was stressed.
4. The Muslims and Hindus were to have weightage in provinces where they formed minorities.

Q.12 What were the main causes of mutiny of war of independence?

1. Official interference in religion.
2. The acts which caused restlessness among the Indian soldiers.
3. Absence of Indian representation in the administration of the country.
4. Social reparation between the rules and ruled.

Q.13 What were the main object of Muslim Anglo Oriental College?

1. To reject the past tradition and speed up the progress of the Muslims.
2. To reconcile oriental learning with western literature and science.
3. To facilitate western education to the Indian Muslims.
4. To create practical energy among Muslims.

Q.14 Write the four objectives of Khilafat Movement.

1. To maintain the Turkish Caliphate.
2. To maintain the unity of Ottoman Empire.
3. To project the holy places of the Muslims.
4. To maintain brotherhood among the Muslim world.

Q.15 Write three sentences about Non-Cooperation Movement.

1. To surrender all the British titles.
2. To boycott the British law Courts.
3. Non participation in election.
4. Withdrawal of all students from the education institution.

Q.16 Write any four recommendations of Simon Commission.

1. The abolition of diarchy form of government.
2. He rejected Muslims demands regarding one third representation of the centre and statutory majorities in the Punjab and Bengal.
3. He postponed the separation of Sindh from Bombay.
4. He agreed the fair representation for the minorities in the legislatures and in the executives.

Q.17 Write any four proposals of Nehru Report.

1. Abolition of Muslims demand of separate electorate.
2. Reservation of Muslim seats was refused.
3. Hindi should be made the official language.
4. the separation of Sindh from Bombay was accepted.

Q.18 Write any four points of the famous Fourteen Points of Quaid-e-Azam.

1. In the central legislative, Muslims representation should not be less than one third.
2. Sindh should be separated from the Bombay Presidency.
3. A uniform measure of autonomy should be granted to all the provinces.
4. Reforms should be introduced in the N.W.F.P and Baluchistan on the same footing as in other provinces.

Q.19 When and where the three round table conference were held?


1. The first Round Table Conference was held in London from 22nd November, 1930 to 19th January, 1931.
2. The second Round Table Conference was held in London from 7th September, 1931 to 31st December, 1931.
3. The third Round Table Conference was held in London from 17th November, 1932 to 24th December, 1932.

Q.20 Write any four effects of Pakistan Resolution.


1. Muslims were relieved from the Hindus dominion.
2. Gandhi become annoyed and called it a “Moral Mistake”.
3. Hindus dream of “Ram Raj” was vanished.
4. Muslims got a country where they could live according to the teachings of Islam.

Q.21 Write any four points about the role of Quaid-e-Azam as a Governor General.


1. He created an establishment of officers.
2. He created National Spirit and patriotism in the newly born country.
3. he started public contracts and visited frequently Baluchistan and N.W.F.P.
4. He paid special attention towards the economy of Pakistan.

Class IX, PAKISTAN STUDIES, "Radcliff Award"

Mr. Radcliff, an ordinary lawyer was sent from England to India for the demarcation of the boundaries of Punjab and Bengal. The viceroy and Mr. Radcliff connived with the Congress and demarcated the boundary according to their wishes. Radcliff included many Muslim majority, areas in India and deprived Pakistan of the waters of Sutlej, Bias and Ravi. Further captured Kashmir and created a Kashmir problem which is still unsolved. The defective planning of Radcliff created many problems for Pakistan unsolved. The defective planning of Radlciff created many problems for Pakistan.

Dawn of Independence

Independence has a great importance for the nations. Pakistan came into being as independent state on 14th August 1947 27th Ramadan and India on 15th August 1947.

Class IX, PAKISTAN STUDIES, "3rd June Plan"

3rd June Plan and Lord Mountbatten

Lord Mountbatten became the viceroy of India in March 1947. He tried his best to keep India United but of no avail. He concluded that there was no solution to Indian problems except partition of it.
3rd June Plan and the Creation of Pakistan

On 3rd June 1947 the viceroy announced the partition plan in a joint conference of Congress and Muslim League leaders in Delhi. The plan came to be known as 3rd June Plan. Some important points of the plan were as under:

The Indian Independence Bill 1947

Power would be given to Pakistan by 14th August 1947. This bill was passed and came to be known as Independence Bill 1947.

Separate Session

A clause was incorporated in the 3rd June Plan that separate session of Muslim and Hindu Members of the Assemblies of Punjab and Bengal would be held to decide whether their provinces were in favour of the partition, and how it would take place.

New Boundaries

the new boundaries of these provinces would be decided by a commission.

Sindh Assembly

Sindh Assembly would decide the future state of the province through the majority of volte. Sindh Assembly voted for Pakistan.

People of N.W.F.P and Sylhet

The people of N.W.F.P and Sylhet would decide their status through a referendum. N.W.F.P and Sylhet also decided to join Pakistan.


The viceroy announced the plan on 3rd June 1947. According to the plan it was decided to transfer the power on the midnight of the 14th and 15th August 1947 instead of 3rd June 1947.

Class IX, PAKISTAN STUDIES, "Role of Quaid-e-Azam as Governor General"

Quaid-e-Azam As A Governor General

On 14th August 1947, Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah became the 1st Governor General. He remained Governor General for thirteen months. During this period, he solved many important national issues. Some of them are mentioned as under:

Formation of Federal Cabinet

As soon as the Quaid-e-Azam took an immediate action and nominated members of the Federal Cabinet to run the Government affairs smoothly. Liaquat Ali Khan was elected as the Prime Minister. Other members of the cabinet were also nominated. This first cabinet of Pakistan took oath on 15th August 1947.

Members of the Cabinet

1. Sardar Abdul Rab Nisther (Transports)
2. Raja Ghazanfer Ali Khan (Agriculture)
3. Fazal-ur-Rehman (Education)
4. I.I Chundrigar (Industry)
5. Ghulam Mohammad (Finance)
6. Jogander Nath Mandal (Law)
7. Sir Zafar Ullah Khan Qadyani (Affair)

Constitutional Problems

The Act of 1935 was amended and enforced in the country as there was no constitution available of the newly born state. Thus this great achievement was done under the administrative leadership of the Quaid-e-Azam.

Establishment of Capital

Karachi was made Capital of Pakistan.

Provincial Government

Quaid-e-Azam elected Chief Minister and Governor. Here are chief ministers of provinces:
Khan Iftikhar Hussain Mumdot – Punjab
Khuwaja Nazam-ud-Dn – East Bengal
Khan Abdul Qayyum – N.W.F.P
Mohammad Ayub Khuro – Sindh
Chief Commissioner (British) – Baluchistan

Establishment of Administrative Head Quarters

For the administrative reformation, a committee was set up and Chaudhry Mohammad Ayub was made the Secretary General. Civil Services were re-organized and Civil Services Academy was constituted. The Secretariat was established. Moreover, Head quarters for Army, Navy and Air Force were set up. An ammunition factory was also set up.

Attention to Foreign Affairs

Realizing the sensitivity of foreign affairs, Quaid-e-Azam paid his utmost attention to the Foreign Policy. He developed healthy relations with the neighboring and developed countries that were the main objective of the Foreign Policy.

Membership of UNO

After independence, Quaid-e-Azam paid immediate attention for acquiring membership of the United Nations Organization (UNO). On 30th September 1947, Pakistan became the member of the UNO. This all, was done under the dynamic leadership of Quaid-e-Azam.

Implementation of Education Policy

Education plays an important role in the development of a country. It improves living standard of a nation and development. Education sector also needed attention at the time of independence. for this purpose, he held the first Educational Conference in 1947. He wished that every citizen of Pakistan should serve his nation with honesty and national spirit. he made nation with honesty and national spirit. He made acquisition of scientific and technological education compulsory for the students. Quaid-e-Azam did a lot to improve education policy of the country.

In the Service of Pakistan

Quaid-e-Azam served his country till his death. Despite his bad health, he kept on going through the important files. He succumbed to deadly disease of consumption.

First Cabinet of Pakistan

First cabinet of Pakistan was also elected by Quaid-e-Azam. He took of it. Liaquat Ali Khan was first Prime Minister of Pakistan.

Class IX, PAKISTAN STUDIES, "Role of N.W.F.P in the Establishment of Pakistan"


North West Frontier Province is an important province of Pakistan. Its capital is Peshawar. Famous Khyber Pass is situated in this province. Foreign invaders entered sub-continent through this pass. It is an historical passage. Khushal Khan Khattak and Rehman Baba are the most famous poets of this province.

Facing Difficulties

Frontier is the province of Muslim majority. But Muslim League had to face many difficulties and problems while establishing it here. This difficulty was due to the leaders that were under the influence of Congress and they favoured its policies. Among such leaders Sarhadi Gandhi Abdul Ghaffar Khan was at the top of the list. In this province, Congress had the ministry that opposed the movement of Muslim League.

Organization of Muslim League

Muslim League slowly made its strong hold there under the leadership of the Quaid. Muslim League began to become popular in Frontier after passing Pakistan Resolution in 1940. Muslims of this area began to join Muslim League. Congress in this province started making false cases against the Muslim Leaders to torture them and locked them in jails. But they did not lose their courage. The struggle of Muslim League after 1945 became active. Among the leaders which contributed a lot are Khan Abdul Qayyum Khan, Peer Sahib Zakori Sharif and Peer Sahib Manki Sharif.

Demand for Pakistan

In February, 1947 Muslim League started the Non Co-Operative Movement against the Congress. Provincial Government gave hard tortures to Muslim League workers but it could not stop the Muslim League movement. Instead, it began to spread in the whole province. Provincial government began to be hated everywhere in the province and meetings of Muslim League began to be held in favour of separate homeland. In his way it was proved that the people of Muslim League were in the favour of Pakistan.

Conflict between Muslim League and Congress

On 3rd June, 1947 British government accepted the demand of Pakistan and declared that the future of Frontier will be decided by vote. So the Muslims stopped Non-Cooperation Movement. Muslim started convincing the people to give vote for Pakistan. On the other hand Congress started movement against Pakistan and raised a slogan of Free Baluchistan.

Joining Pakistan

The people of Frontier voted in favour of Pakistan in a large majority. In this way Frontier became the part of Pakistan and the Muslims of Frontier got their independence.

Class IX, PAKISTAN STUDIES, "Fourteen Points of Quaid-e-Azam"


In March 1929, at the annual session of All India Muslim League, Quaid-e-Azam declared his famous fourteen points.

Federal System

The form of the future constitution should be federal with the residuary powers rested in the provinces.

Provincial Autonomy

A uniform measure of autonomy shall be granted to all provinces.

Representation of Minorities

All legislative in the country and other elected bodies shall be constituted on the definite principles of adequate and effective representation of minorities in every province without reducing the majority in any province to a minority or even equality.

Number of Muslim Representatives

In the central legislative, Muslims representatives shall be not less than one-third.

Separate Electorates

Representative of communal groups shall continue to be by means of separate electorates as at present provided it shall be open to any community, at any time, to abandon its separate electorate in favour of joint electorate.

Muslim Majority Provinces

Any territorial re-distribution that might at any time be necessary shall not in any way affects the Muslim majority in Punjab, Bengal and N.W.F.P.

Religious Liberty

Full religious liberty, liberty of belief, worship and observance, association and education shall be guaranteed to all the communication.

Three-Fourth Representation

No bill or resolution shall be passed in any legislative or any other elected body if three-fourths of the members of any community in that particular body oppose such a bill.

Separation of Sindh

Sindh should be separated from Bombay Presidency.

Introduction of Reforms in N.W.F.P and Baluchistan

Reforms should be introduced in the Noth West Frontier Province and Baluchistan on the same footing as in other provinces.

Government Services

Muslims should be given adequate share along with ohter Indians in the services of State.

Protection of Muslim’s Culture and Language

The constitution should embody adequate safeguard for the protection of Muslim culture, language, religion and civilization.

One-Third Muslim Ministries

No Cabinet, either central or provincial is formed. Without being a proportion of atleast one third Muslim Ministers.


No change shall be made in the constitution of State except with the concurrence of State constituting the Indian Federation. The reasonable and moderate demands, contained in the fourteen points, were rejected by the Hindus leaders which considerably widened the gulf between the two communities.

Importance of Jinnah’s Fourteen Points

A comparison of the Nehru Report with the Quaid-e-Azam’s fourteen points shows that the political gap between the Muslims and the Hindus had really widened. Fourteen points of Quaid-e-Azam became principles for the Muslims of India. The importance of these points can be judged by the fact that these points were presented in the Round Table Conference of 1930. As a result, these points became the demands of the Muslims and greatly influenced the Muslims thinking for the next two decades till the establishment of Pakistan in 1947.

Class IX, PAKISTAN STUDIES, "Motives and Objectives of Muslim League"


The important motives and objectives of Muslim League are as under:

1. To safe guard and protect Muslim interests and to convey their demands to British Government.

2. To create a feeling of respect and good will in Muslims for the British Government.

3. To promote brotherhood between different nationals of India.

Role of Muslim League

The role played by All India Muslim League in the creation of Pakistan is summarized under:

Minto-Morley Reform Act – 1909

The Muslims under the able leadership of Muslim League now began to press for the separate electroate for the Muslims. The authorities accepted their demand in an Act, called “The Minto-Morley Reform Act”, 1909.

Lucknow Pact – 1916

In November 1916, two committees of League and Congress met at Calcutta and drew and agreement draft of political reform for India called “Lucknow Pact.” Through this pact the Congress recognized the separate status of Muslims.

Simon Commission

In 1927, Simon Commission was sent to India under the chairmanship of Sir John Simon to settle Muslim Hindu differences. It was rejected because there was no Indian member on the commission.

Jinnah’s Fourteen Points – 1929

The Quaid-e-Azam refused to accept the nehru – report. He prepared a draft of guiding principles consisting of 14 points, popularly known as “Jinnah’s Fourteen Points.”

Allama Iqbal’s Allahabad Address – 1930

In 1930, in his presidential address at annual session of League at Allahabad, Iqbal proposed the formation of a separate Muslim State by combining Northern and South-Western Muslim majority region in Sub Continent.

Day of Deliverance

On 22nd December, Muslim League observed “Deliverance Day” to thank for Allah for resignation of Congress Ministers.

Pakistan Resolution – 1940

The attitude of the Hindus made it clear that the Hindus and the Muslims were two separate nations. On March, 23rd, at the annual session of the Muslim League at Lahore, the famous resolution, commonly known as the Pakistan Resolution was passed. It was presented by Maulvi Fazlul Haq.

Cripps Mission – 1942

Sir Stafford Cripps was sent by the British Government to India, to discuss with Indian leaders, the future Indian Constitution. His proposal was rejected by both the Congress and the League. The Congress characterized them as “a post-dated check on a failing bank.” Jinnah said that:
“If these were accepted “Muslims would become a minority in their majority provinces as well”.

Gandhi Jinnah Talks – 1944

Gandhi held talks with Jinnah to discuss about the future of India, but no fruitful results came out of it because Gandhi did not accept Muslims as a separate nation.

Simla Conference – 1945

Lord Wavell called a conference at Simla. The conference failed to achieve any purpose due to one sided attitude of Lord Wavell. In this conference, Quaid-e-Azam made it crystal clear that the (7) Muslims League can represent Muslims of India.

General Elections – 1945-1946

Elections for the central and provincial assemblies were held in 1945-1946 in which Muslim League won 30 seats of central legislative meant for Muslim and 430 seats out of 495 in the provincial legislative.

Cabinet Mission – 1946

Cabinet Mission visited India in 1946 and submitted its recommendations to the Britishers. As a result Interim Government was formed but Congress and League couldn’t cooperate amongst them.

Delhi Convention – 1946

Quaid-e-Azam called a convention of all the Muslim League Members at Delhi. At the convention every membter took the pledge to under go any danger for the attainment of national goal of Pakistan.

3rd June Plan – 1947

Lord Mount Batten prepared the plan for transference of power according to the wish of people. He emphasized on the partition of the country and told that it was the only solution of the Indian political deadlock. Both League and Congress accepted the plan.


Muslims League thus got its object and Pakistan was created on 14th August 1947. In short we can say that the creation of Pakistan is the result of the ceaseless efforts of the Muslim League and the great heroes which dedicated their lives for the creation of Pakistan. If there were be no Muslim League the fate of the Muslims of the Sub Continent could not be changed

Saturday, July 30, 2011

Class IX, PAKISTAN STUDIES, "Role of Sindh in the Making of Pakistan"


Sindh is an important province of Pakistan. Karachi is situated in this province and its the biggest city of Pakistan. Karachi is the capital of Sindh and is called small or mini Pakistan. Sindh played very important role in the formation of Pakistan.

Historical Background

Sindh became the part of Muslim state firstly after the victory of Mohammad Bin Qasim. That is why it is called the gateway of Islam. During the rule of Mohammad Bin Qasim and his followers Sindh remained the province of Abbasi Caliphate for nearly three centuries. During this time, many great scholars were born there which made Sindh famous over the Islamic world, during the decline period of Abbas when local rulers got the control of Sindh. After this Sindh remained under the control of Sultans of Delhi and Mughal rulers. However, the government of Muslims remained there till the arrival of the British rule. Shah Abdul Latif Bhatai and Hazrat Sachal Surmast are the famous Sufi poets of Sindh.

Separation of Bombay from Sindh

During the rule of the English, Sindh was made a part of Bombay, due to which no attention given to the social and educational position of Sindh. In Quaid’s fourteen points the separation of Sindh from Bombay was demanded. In this way due to the continuous efforts of Muslim League Sindh was separated from Bombay in 1935. It was made a separate province of Muslim majority.

Home Land of Quaid

Quaid-e-Azam was born in Karachi. He completed his early education in Sindh Madrassa High School.

Pakistan Movement

The Muslims of Sindh took active part in Pakistan Movement. In 1938 the Provincial Muslim League of Sindh passed a resolution in which it was demanded that the provinces with Muslim majority should be given to Muslims. It was the first time that any branch of Muslim League passed a resolution of separate homeland.

Favour for Pakistan Resolution

On 23 March 1940, there was held a Muslim League Session in Lahore in which Pakistan Resolution was passed. The Muslim League leaders of Sindh supported the resolution very much. A prominent leader of Sindh, Sir Abdullah Haroon felt happy on this pattern that the demand of Sindh Muslim League made in 1938 became the demand of Muslim League on national level.

Pakistan Demand Committee

Quaid-e-Azam made a committee in Sindh province to speed up the struggle for Pakistan in which Sir Abdullah Haroom and many other leaders of Sindh were the members. By the efforts of these Muslim leaders the demand for Pakistan became more popular.

Muslim League Ministry

Muslim League in 1943 became so popular in Sindh that it established its own ministry. In this way Sindh was the first province in the sub continent where the Muslim League established its ministry. In December 1943, Sindh Provincial Assembly once again became more superir to other provinces by passing resolution in favour of Pakistan.
Success of Muslim League in Elections 1946

After the provincial elections in February 1946 the leader of the Muslim League, Sir Ghulam Hussain Hidayatullah established ministry under leadership. But this assembly was dissolved due to the conspiracies of Congress and new elections were held in 1946 in which Muslim League won all the seats and established its ministry again.

Entry in Pakistan

According to the plan of division of sub-continent on 3rd June, 1947 there was held a meeting of Sindh Provincial Assembly which decided to join Pakistan by the favour of majority.

Class IX, PAKISTAN STUDIES, "Role of Punjab in the Making of Pakistan"


Punjab is the largest province of Pakistan. Lahore is the capital of Punjab. Lahore is an historical city. Lahore has always been the centre of political activity. So this province is called elder brother. This province played an important role in the existence of Pakistan.

Strong Support for Pakistan

Punjab took active part in every political or non-political activity. In the same way in Pakistan Movement, Punjab played its important role.

Allam Iqbal

Allama Iqbal took part in practical politics and created the wave of freedom in the Muslims. He was the member of Provincial Council of Punjab. In 1930 he gave the sketch of separate homeland for the Muslims in his Allahabad session. That is why he is called the Painter of Pakistan. He gave very useful suggestions to Quaid-e-Azam and showed his complete confidence in his leadership. Quaid also respected Allama Iqbal. He said during Pakistan Movement,

“If we succeeded in getting a separate homeland for the Muslims and at one side I am given the president-ship and at other side the books of Iqbal; I will select the books of Iqbal.”

In 1931-1932 in London, Iqbal joined Round Table Conference so that the political problems of sub continent could be solved.

Maulana Zafer Ali Khan

Zafar Ali Khan also belonged to Punjab. He was a high rank generalist, national hero and a great poet. “Zamindar” was his famouse newspaper in Urdu. He founded “Majlis-e-Ahrar”. This party launched a movement against Kadiyanis. He stated the aims of Muslim League well by his pen and tongue when he joined it. In 1936 elections, he was elected as the Member of Assembly on Muslim League ticket and after this he remained on the front in the struggle for independence.

Iqbal said about Zafer Ali Khan:

“What work Mustafa Kamal Ataturk did for Turkey by his sword, Zafer did the same work for the Muslims by his pen.”

Chaudhry Rehmat Ali

Chaudhry Rehmat Ali who suggested this name for Pakistan in 1932 lived in Punjab. In those days he was studying in London. He made Muslims emotional by his pamphlet, “Now or Never”. He invented Pakistan by : P for Pakistan, A for Afghani, F for Frontier Province, K for Kashmir, S for Sindh and Tan for Baluchistan.

Pakistan Resolution

Muslim League slowly set its feet in Punjab. In the beginning some local and provincial political parties opposed Muslim League but later on, Muslim League became the most effective political party of Punjab under the leadership of Quaid-e-Azam. On 23rd March 1940, there was held a meeting in Lahore in which Pakistan Resolution or Lahore Resolution was passed in which Pakistan as a separate homeland for the Muslims was demanded. Now-a-days Minar-e-Pakistan is standing at that place.

Lahore As the Heart of Pakistan

Quaid-e-Azam rightly said “Lahore is the heart of Pakistan.”

Effective Pakistan Movement

Muslim League became the most active emotional party in Punjab under the leadership of Quaid-e-Azam. People from all groups of Punjab joined Pakistan Movement.

Muslim League in Punjab Assembly

Muslim League took part in 1945-46 elections on the basis of demand for Pakistan and won particular seats in the central assembly for Punjab. In provincial elections, Muslim League won 75 seats out of 86. After this four other members joined Muslim League. So Muslim League got 79 seats, in this way Muslim League became the biggest party in Punjab. But the English governor of Punjab, instead of offering the Muslims League to make government, offered the government to Congress and Unionists party by conspiracy. Because of this, government did not have the support of the people. Muslim League launched “No Confidence Movement” and as a result, it had to resign soon.

Wrong Division of Punjab

It was decided that the province of Punjab should be divided between India and Pakistan. For this purpose an English Judge Radcliff was appointed as president of Commission that by conspiracy with Mountbatten and Congress gave most fertile areas of Muslim majority to India and the population of those Muslim areas left their homes and had to migrate to Pakistan.

Disturbances and the Problem of Immigrants

When Hindus and Sikhs saw that sub-continent is being divided against their interest they started disturbances in some regions of Punjab in which thousands of Muslims were killed and injured. In this play of fire and blood, the Muslims of Punjab proved very courageous and welcomed the refugees coming from India and proved that the Muslims are brothers of each other in the hour of need.

Class IX, PAKISTAN STUDIES, "Role of Baluchistan in the Freedom Movement"


According to area, Baluchistan is the is the biggest province of Pakistan. Quetta is capital of Baluchistan. Sui gas is found in Baluchistan. The people of this province are very courageous and brave. In the past, this province remained under-developed but today it is moving on the path of progress.

Historical Background

During British rule Baluchistan did not enjoy the status of province. It was deprived of political reforms. Due to this remained backward politically and economically. In 1927, Tavares-e-Delhi given by Muslim leaders and in 1929 in Quaid-e-Azam’s fourteen points, it was demanded that political reforms should also be introduced in Frontier and Baluchistan like other provinces.

Political Awakening

The process of political awakening in Baluchistan; started very late because its link with other parts of the country was very little. They were backward in education.

Organization of Muslim League

Muslim League was founded in Baluchistan in 1939. Qazi Mohammad is at the top of the list of people, which made Muslim League active in Baluchistan, Nawab Mohammad Khan Jogezai and Mir Jafar Jamali also served much. These leaders prepared the people here for making Pakistan both mentally and practically.

Favour for Pakistan Resolution

Baluchistan Muslim League favored Pakistan movement very much. The leaders held meeting here fro time to time and prepared the people mentally for Pakistan.

Active Part in Pakistan Movement

The people of Baluchistan took active part in Pakistan Movement. In April 1947 Pakistan Conference was held in Quetta in which Muslim League strongly demanded Pakistan as their independent state.

Joining Pakistan

On 3rd June 1947 it was declared that Balochi Shahi Jerga and Quetta municipal Committee would decide about the future of Baluchistan. Congress tried much to win the favour but failed due to the untiring efforts of Qazi Mohammad Esa, Nawab Mohammad Khan Jogezai, Mir Jaffer Khan Jamali and ohter leaders and workers of Muslim League Shahi Jerga, Balochi leaders and Municipal Committee decided in favour of Pakistan. In this way Baluchistan became the part of Pakistan.

Class IX, PAKISTAN STUDIES, "Two Nation Theory"


The Two Nation theory in its simplest way means the cultural, political, religious, economic and social dissimilarities between the two major communities, Hindus and Muslim of the Sub Continent. These differences of out look, in fact, were greatly instrumental in giving rise to two distinct political ideologies which were responsible for the partition of India into two independent states.

The Basis of the Creation of Pakistan

The Two Nation Theory was the basis of the struggle for creation of Pakistan which held that Hindus and Muslims are two separate nations. They in spite of living together for centuries could not forget their individual culture and civilization.

There are a few factors which split the inhabitants of the Sub Continent into two nations. Let us examine each of them separately.

Religious Differences

Islam preaches Tawheed (Oneness of Allah) and believes in equality of man before law. Muslims are the believers of God, the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H), the Holy book Quran and hold a cohesive approach towards life.

Hinduism, on the other hand is based on the concept of multiple Gods. Their society follows a caste system and is divided into four classes and has a very narrow approach towards life.

Hindu Nationalism

The Hindu nationalist leaders totally ignored the great contribution made by the Muslims in the Indian society by way of promoting education and other social activities. Their writings and ideas flared up the communal discord between Hindus and Muslims to further pollute the political condition.

Cultural Differences

Muslim followed the Islamic culture, while Hindus inherited a self build culture. The Hindus burnt their dead bodies while Muslim burred them. Hindus considered the ‘Mother Cow’ as a sacred animal and worshiped it while Muslims slaughtered it. They performed ‘Sati’ while Muslims abhorred this tradition.

Social Differences

The two communities of the Sub-Continent differ in their social life as well as the clothes the foods, the household utensils, the layout of homes, the words of salutation, the gestures and every thing about them was different and immediately pointed to the distinctive origin.

Economic Differences

After 1857, the Muslim economic was crushed. The Muslims were thrown out of Government services and their estates and properties were confiscated, while the Hindus were provided with ample opportunities to progress economically.

Educational Differences

The Hindus had advanced in the educational field because they quickly and readily took to the English education. While Muslims did not receive modern education which heavily affected their economic conditions.

Political Differences

the political differences between the Hindus and Muslims have played an important role in the development and evolution of the Two Nation Theory.

Hindi Urdu Controversy

In 1867, the Hindus demanded that Urdu should be written in Hindi Script instead of Persian script. This created another gap between Hindus and Muslims.

Congress Attitude

The Indian National Congress was founded in 1885. It claimed to represent all communities of India but oppressed all Muslim ideas and supported the Hindus.

Partition of Bengal

In 1905, the partition of Bengal ensured a number of political benefits for the Muslims but the Hindus launched an agitation against the partition and partition was annulled in 1911.


The Muslim and Hindus wrote and spoke two different languages. The Muslim spoke Urdu and it was written in Arabic Script. On the other hand, the Hindi language was spoken by Hindus and it was written in Sanskrit.

Sir Syed Ahmed – The Pioneer of Two Nation Theory

The entire freedom movement revolved around the two nation theory which was introduced by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. He considered all those lived in India as one nation and was a great advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity. Speaking at the meeting of nation and was a great advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity. Speaking at the meeting of nation and was a great advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity. Speaking at the meeting of Indian Association he said:

“I look to both Hindus and Muslims with the same eyes and consider them as my own eyes. By the word ‘Nation’ I mean only Hindus and Muslims and nothing else. We Hindus and Muslims live together on the same soil under the same government. Our interests and problems are common, and therefore, I consider the two factions as one nation.”

Two Nation Theory in the View of Allama Iqbal

Allama Iqbal was the first important figure who propounded the idea of separate homeland on the basis of two nation theory. In the annual session of Muslim League at Allahabad in 1930, he said:

“India is a continent of human beings belonging to different languages and professing different religions … I, therefore, demand the formation of consolidated Muslim state in the best interests of the Muslims of India and Islam.”

Quaid-e-Azam’s Statement on Two Nation Theory

He expounded the two nation’s theory in such detail that most Muslims and even some Hindus came to believe in its truth. He declared:

“Muslims are not a minority; they are one nation by every definition of the word nation. By all canons of international law we are a nation.”

Quaid-e-Azam reiterated that Hindus and Muslims could ever evolve a common nationality was an idle dream.

In 1973, he said:

“Hindustan is neither one country, nor its inhabitant’s one nation. This is sub continent which consists of many nations of which the Hindus and Muslims are two major nation.”


Two nation theory is the basis of the creation of Pakistan because without it Pakistan would not come into being on 14th August, 1947.

Class IX, PAKISTAN STUDIES, "Sir Syed Ahmed Khan"

Early Education

He was born in Delhi on 17th October 1817. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was a great reformer. He belonged to a prominent family of the city. After completing his formal education, he entered service with the British East India Company in 1839. He rose to the position of judge in 1846 and later on he was transferred to Banglore as the Chief Judge.

The First Task

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan began his first task to soften British hostility towards the Muslims of subcontinent. He wrote a book “Essay on the causes of the India Revolt” on the war of independence. This book was sent to British Members of the parliament and was circulated among British officials.

Educational Services

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan knew that the Muslims could not achieve this goal without education. He set up a Persian school at Muradabad in 1859. This school was upgraded to the college in 1875. This college was upgraded to the college and the university level after his death. The educated Muslims of the early twentieth century were the product of this institution.

Political Services

He urged the Muslims to acquire knowledge first and then they should take part in the politics of the subcontinent. After the war of independence, his position was not less than that of a great political reformer for Muslims.

Aligarh Movement

Aligarh Movement had the following objects:
1. To build confidence between the British and the Muslims.
2. To persuade the Muslims to get scientific knowledge and learn English language.
3. To hold back the Muslims from the collective politics.

Effects of Aligarh Movement

His main focus was on Aligarh to achieve his goals. he estabished Mohammad an Anglo Oriental School. It was a symbol of a broad movement affecting every phase of Muslim life. The actions taken by Sir syed Ahmed Khan for the educational uplift of the Muslims left a far-reaching impact on the political, social, economic and religious aspects of the Muslims. The Aligarh movement showed new ways to press and opened the doors of economic prosperity for the Muslims of the sub-continent.

Congress and Sir Syed Ahmed Khan

In 1883, Lord A.O.Hume formed an organization called Indian National Congress. The aim of this party was to provide a political platform for the Indians. Many Indians joined this party. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was an open minded and large hearted person. He was a great patriot, At first he considered all who lived in India as one nation and was a great advocate of Hindu-Muslim unity. He looked both Hindus and Muslims with the same eyes. He said,

“By the word “Nation”, I mean only Hindus and Muslims and nothing else. Our interests and problems are common and therefore, I consider the two factions as one nation.”

But unfortunately the attitude of Hindus and Congress compelled him to reconsider his ideas about one nation. He felt sorry to see that both Congress and Hindus looking against the interests of the Muslims. Congress ignored the Muslims totally. He failed to bring Hundus and Muslims closer a one single platform He saw that the Hindus never come forward with open mind and always adopted a policy to damage the Muslim cause, so Sir Syed Ahmed Khan advised the Muslims to keep themselves away from it. On 1st October 1906 Sir Agha Khan led a Muslim delegation and met the Viceroy Lord Minto at Simla to demand a separate electorate for Muslims in the coming reforms. The viceroy save a good response to them. There being no political party for Muslims at that time a strong need for it was felt. God Almightly enabled them to form Muslim League.

Urdu-Hindi Controversy

In 1867, Hindus demanded that Hindi should be made on official language of India in place of Urdu. They started an agitation. The Hindus were against Urdu because it was the language o the Muslims, Sir Syed felt sorry and he was now convinced that the Hindus would never be friend with the Muslims.

The Real Founder of Pakistan

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan saw the attitude of Hindus towards the Muslims and felt sorry for it. He declared,

“I am convinced now that Hindus and Muslims could never become one nation.”

Hindus and Muslims are two separate nations because their religion, culture, history and way of life are quite distinct from each other. In this way we can say this great hero and reformer, the real founder of Pakistan.

Sir Syed passed away on 27 March 1898 but his work was continued by Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk. Due to the Sir Syed’s efforts the Muslims emerged as a separate identity.

Class IX, PAKISTAN STUDIES, "Syed Ahmed Shaheed Barelvi"


Syed Ahmed Shaheed Brelvi was born in 29 November 1786 in Rai Bareilley. He moved to Delhi at the age of eighteen and became the follower of Shah Abdul Aziz. He received the necessary education during his stay at Delhi. In 1812 he joined the army of Nawab Ameer Khan Tonak in order to take part in Jihad against the British. In 1821, he went to perform Hajj but stayed there for two years where he met with the great thinkers of Islam and got knowledge about the movements of Islam in the world. He became greatly impressed from this new system of thought for Islam. When he came back on 6 August 1823 to India, he devoted himself for the religious and social reformation of the Muslims and the preparation of Jihad. He received martyrdom in fighting with Sikhs on 6th May 1831.

The Mujahideen Movement

Syed Ahmed Shaheed Brelvi started a great movement in the North of India; this movement is known as “The Mujahideen Movement” or “The Movement o Jihad”. This movement arranged a power for the struggle of freedom in Muslims which produced a spirit of survival and they started freedom struggle.
Background of the Mujahideen Movement
Syed Ahmed Shaheed Brelvi selected a particular way on the command of his spiritual guide Shah Abdul Aziz and devoted himself in the preparation of the holy war. He started a national movement for this purpose in 1818 and organized this movement after is arrival from Hajj as the Mujahideen Movement in 1831.

Objectives of Mujahideen Movement

He wanted to make the Muslims as the true lover of Islam, for this purpose he started the Mujahideen Movement.
The main objectives of the Mujahideen Movement were following;

  • To preach unicity of Almighty Allah.
  • To revive the teachings of Islam and prepare the Muslims to pass their lives simply according to the teachings of Islam.
  • To protect the Muslims against such acts and ideas which are contrary to Islamic values.
  • To protect the Muslims from the worship of other things except Allah.
  • To preach Jihad because it was not possible to get freedom from evil force without armed struggle.

Syed Ahmed Shaheed Brelvi wanted to eliminate the domination of Sikhs in Punjab and N.W.F.P to revive Islamic values and traditions.
He started Jihad in the Punjab and N.W.F.P. Shah Ismail Shaheed along with six thousand followers also joined Syed Ahmed in his Jihad against evil forces. Syed Ahmed toured different areas around Delhi and Punjab, where number of his followers joined him.

Struggle of Mujahideen Movement

The Mujahideen Movement was started against the Sikhs. He came to Sindh in 1826 and sought to help Syed Sibghatullah Shah Pir Pagara. Syed Sibghatullah Shah Pir Pagara sent a strong contingent of this staunch followers called “Hurs”. Syed Ahmed Shaheed Brelvi left his family under the protection of Pir Pagara and proceeded towards Jihad without any worry about his family. Syed Ahmed Shaheed Brelvi reached Nowshehra after passing though Afghanistan, the Khyber Pass and Peshawar in December 1826 and made it his headquarter. The first battle against hte Sikhs was fought on December 21, 1826 near Akora. The Sikhs were defeated. The second battle was fought at Hazro. It was also won by the Muslims. These victories inspired a number of Pathan tribes to join Jihad Movement. The number of Mujahideen rose to 80,000. Syed Ahmed Shaheed Brelvi was given the status of “Amir-ul-Momineen”. Islamic laws were enforced in the area which was controlled by Syed Ahmed Shaheed Brelvi.

The movement of the Holy war was initially very successful but soon conspiracies began against Syed Ahmed, Maharaja Ranjid Singh (1780-1839) bribed Sardar yar Mohammad and his brother Sultan Mohammad Khan to plot against the Khilafat of Syed Ahmed Shaheed Brelvi. The disloyalty of the tribal leaders disheartened him. He made Balakot as is new headquarter. He started his struggle from Muzaffarabad. Here a tough fight started between the Mujahideen and the Sikhs. The Muslims fought with heroism but Syed Ahmed and his right hand companions were martyred on 6th May1831. In short, the Mujahideen movement of Syed Ahmed failed in Balakot, but this movement kindled a flame of freedom in sub-continent. The political work of Syed Ahmed Brelvi was carried on later by Willayat Ali of Patna. When the British captured the Punjab then a battle was fought again against the British. Thus the Jihad movement of Syed Ahmed Shaheed Brelvi was ended after several wars like this for independence.

Class IX, PAKISTAN STUDIES, "Role of Shah Waliullah in the Freedom Movement"


The efforts of Shah Waliullah for the spread of Islam were the first step towards the establishment of free Islamic Society as well as the establishment of Pakistan.

Early Education

Shah Waliullah was a great saint, scholar and reformer. He was born in a pious family in Delhi on 21st February 1703. His father’s name was Shah Abdul Rahim. Shah Abdul Rahim was the founding member of the Madrasa Rahimiya in Delhi. Shah Waliullah received his early education in Madrassa Rahimiya.

As A Teacher

After finishing his education at the Madrassa Shah Waliullah taught there for twelve years. He then went to Saudi Arabia in 1724 for Hajj and higher studies. He returned to Delhi in July 1732.

Preaching of Islam

He advocated the Quranic education for the welfare of the Muslims of subcontinent. He urged the people to live simple life. Shah Waliullah recognized that the tenets of Islam could not be followed properly unless the Holy Quran itself was understood. In order to spread teachings of Islam, he translated the Holy Quran into Persian. His work was appreciated. Later on his sons, Shah Abdul Qadir and Shah Abdul Aziz translated the Holy Quran in Urdu.

Role in Politics

Shah Waliullah led the Muslims to struggle for their political rights. He wrote many letters to the great Afghan ruler Ahmed Shah Abdali to retrieve Muslim rule in India. Shah Waliullah clarified the importance of “Jihad” to the soldiers. He knew that the Sikhs, Marhattas and the Jats were the enemies of the Muslims. So he urged the Muslims to strive for Allah because they had already suffered a lot by fighting with one another.

Author of Many Books

Shah Waliullah was the writer of many books which are as follows:
1. Hajjatullah-ul-Balighah
2. Izalat-Al-Akhfa
3. The explanation of the Holy Quran

Two Nation Theory

Shah Waliullah played a vital role in establishing the personality and identity of Muslims. He said that the Muslims are one nation according to Kalma and belief and there is no importance of their colour and any geographical existence.

Tuesday, July 12, 2011

Class IX, PAKISTAN STUDIES, "Faraizi Movement"


Faraizi movement was founded by Haji Shariat Ullah. he was o the view that Muslims should give up un-Islamic customs.
He emphasized that Muslims should act upon Faraiz only i.e. prayer (Namaz), Fasting (Roza), Hajj and Zakaat. Hence his movement came to be known as Faraizi Movement. After the death of Haji Shariat Ullah his son Mohammad Mohsin organized the movement in which a systematic way that it became stronger and popular. It proved to be a public movement.

Solution of Some Other Problems

The Faraizi Movement also paid full attention to the problems faced by the peasant. They became so courageous that they refused to bend before the threatening force of landlords.

Monday, July 11, 2011

Class IX, PAKISTAN STUDIES, "Resources of Pakistan" "Fill In The Blanks"

1. Ideology is a ________ word. (French)

2. ______ is a product of great and influential minds or divine guidance. (Ideology)

3. Unicty of Allah is the basic element of _____________. (Islamic Ideology)

4. ______ has the sovereignty in Islamic State. (Allah)

5. ______ is a financial worship. (Zakat)

6. ______ is obligatory on every Muslim once in life time. (Hajj)

7. _________ means brotherhood. (Fraternity)

8. ______ has a complete code of conduct. (Islam)

9. Common religion and common culture are the contents of _______. (ideology)

10. Fraternity and tolerance are the principles of __________. (Islamic Society)

11. _______, faith and culture are the characteristics of Islamics society. (Equality)

12. The sources of Islamic Society are the Holy Quran and ________. (Sunnah)

13. Allama Iqbal presented the idea of separate Muslim state on __________, at Allahabad. (30 December 1930)

14. Lahore resolution was later named as ____________. (Pakistan Resolution)

15. _______ is the arrangement of things at their correct place. (Justice)

Class IX, PAKISTAN STUDIES, "Resources of Pakistan" "Short Question and Answers"

Q.1 Define Ideology?

Ans. It is a system of Ideas concerning social and political life. or It may also be defined as, a product of great minds or its is the result of Devine guidance.

Q.2 What is an Islamic Ideology?

Ans. It is an ideology through a society is formed in accordance with the teachings of the Holy Quran and Sunnah.

Q.3 Write any four guiding principles of Islamic way of life?

Ans. The four important guiding Islamic principles are :

1. Unity of Allah: It means the belief in oneness of Allah. It is the basic belief in Islam.

2. Prophet Hood: Finality of the prophet hood of Hazrat Mohammad (P.B.U.H).

3. Life Hereafter: It means all the mankind will be reborn after death. They wil be rewarded or punished according to their deeds in the worldly life.

4. Fundamentals of Islam: It includes Kalma, Salat, Fasting, Hajj and Zakaat.

Q.4 What are the contents of ideology?

Ans. The contents of Ideology are:

1. Common religion: It means that people following a common religion form a common ideology.

2. Common Culture: The people of a country adopt a particular culture, people of a country are recognized by their culture.

3. Common Causes: Every nation has its national objects. So it builds an ideology in accordance to its needs.

4. Dedication and Devotion: The people of a nation should work with dedication and devotion for the betterment of their country.

Q.5 Write down the sources of Islamic Ideology?

Ans. The sources of Islamic Ideology are the Holy Quran and Sunnah.

Q.6 Write the importance of Ideology.

Ans. Ideology is important due to the following reasons:
1. It is a source for achieving the national progress and prosperity.
2. It unites the people.
3. It is a motivating force for deeds and actions.
4. It determine the way of living of the people.

Q.7 Write down any four benefits of Salat?

Ans. Salat has the following advantages:
1. It is a pillar of Islam.
2. It prohibits the evil or satanic deeds.
3. It brings Islamic unity.
4. It is a basic difference between an infided and a Muslim.

Q.8 Write down any four benefits of Zakat?

Ans. Following are the four benefits of Zakat:
1. It is a principal worship to achieve Allah’s pleasure.
2. It reduces the gap between rich and poor.
3. It kills the element of greediness.
4. It is a remedy for selfishness.

Q.9 Write down four sentences on the importance of Hajj?

Ans. Importance of Hajj is depicted in following sentences:
1. It is obligatory on every Muslim once in his life.
2. It creates brotherhood among the Muslims.
3. It shows the strength of the Muslims.
4. It is both principal and physical worship.

Q.10 Write the Islamic principles of Democracy?

Ans. They are as follows:
1. Sovereignty
2. Justice
3. Equality
4. Fraternity
5. Tolerance

Class IX, PAKISTAN STUDIES, "Resources of Pakistan"



Meaning of Ideology

The word “Ideology is French in origin. It is made up of two components namely ‘idea’ and ‘logos’. Ida means concept and logo means studies.

Definition of of Ideology

A collection of beliefs, values, customs, aims, traditions, rituals which is common to all members of a society and its is expressed in the lives of all members of that society is called “Ideology”.

Explanation of Ideology

Ideology is generally used in wider perspective because human beings have unique way of thinking. It constitutes a system of human life whose integral parts are assertion, theories and objectives of human life. In a society the individuals have common beliefs, customs, traditions and rituals.

Importance of Ideology in Practical Life

There is a great importance of ideology in practical life. It gives common thinking and traditions to the people; hence unity is established among them. Thus a common culture is developed in the society due to this particular characteristics of that society are appeared which give it a separate identity in the world. The significance of ideology in practical life can be explained as follows:

* An ideology expresses the ideas and thoughts of all individuals in a society.

* It can unite the people on a platform on the basis of common ideas and traditions.

* It determines the clear principles about the ‘mode of life’, due to this an effective force is developed among people. So they participate in the practical struggle of life.

* It produces self consciousness and prudence among people due to this they become fully aware about basic objectives of a society.

* It helps in fixing the freedom, culture and traditions among the people of a society.

* It explains religious teachings and social values more clearly which help to understand the characteristics of that society.

* All individuals spend purposeful and civilized lives due to an ideology.



Definition of Islamic Ideology

An ideology which enlightens the Islamic teachings, the teachings of Quran and Sunnah, Islamic mode of life and culture is known as Islamic Ideology.


Islam is a complete mode of life and Islamic ideology is established on the basis of golden principles of Islam. It helps in gaining peace and comfort in life. It teaches us the basic principles for the individual and collective welfare of mankind.
Characteristics of Islamic Ideology

The following are the important characteristics of Islamic Ideology:

1. Islamic ideology helps the people to spend their lives according to the teachings of Quran and Sunnah.

2. It provides a complete picture of Islamic way of life and traditions.

3. It helps in the construction of Islamic society according to the commands of Allah.

4. It helps in establishing the basic principles like human respect, tolerance, justice and equality, fraternity and mutual co-operation.

Sources of Islamic Ideology

There are following sources of Islamic Ideology:
1. The Holy Quran
2. Sunnah
3. Traditions and Cultural Values

The Holy Quran

It is the book of guidance which was revealed on the last prophet Hazrat Mohammad (Peace be upon him). The Holy Quran is the permanent basis of Islam. It provides detailed guidance to the people, concerning social and economic laws, leading to a sustainable, peaceful and purposeful life at the individual and collective levels.

Sunnah of the Prophet (P.B.U.H)

The second important source of Islamic Ideology is the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (Peace be Upon Him). Our holy prophet (P.B.U.H) elaborated the injunctons of Islam by his words and deeds. The detailed explanation of the teachings of the Holy Quran is found in Sunnah.

Traditions and Cultural Values

The third important source of Islamic ideology is traditions and culture. It is the way of passing life in which such a balanced life is adopted which makes the life peaceful and comfortable and peace is also established in the collective life of the society. The values and traditions, which do not run opposite to the teachings of Islam are allowed to be followed by the Muslims in their respective regions




There are some certain components of an ideology which are collectively called as the Contents of an Ideology. These contents mutually combined and constitute an ideology; hence the ideology becomes effective and organizes all the individuals in form of a certain group which is called “nation”.

The important and fundamental contents of an ideology are following:

1. Common Religion
2. Common Culture
3. Common Causes
4. Sincere Dedication and Pledges

Common Religion

The most fundamental contents of an ideology is common religion because the effects of religion produce a certain way of thinking. The traditions and the social behaviour of all the individuals become same due to the teachings of religion. Thus religion constitutes a collection of certain thoughts which later appears in the form of an ideology.

Common Culture

The second important contents of an ideology are the common culture. The way of life of the people belonging to a certain region or geographical environment has some special values on the basis of common religion; the way of life constitutes the social life in the form of a civilized culture. Thus some particular traditions become the part of the lives of the people then these remain alive in the form of ideology.

Common Causes

The third important contents of an ideology are the Common Causes of an Ideology. The people belonging to a certain religion or geographical environment constitute common social and economical causes for the solution of their problems, due to this their social behavior becomes same in this respect, and hence an ideology is formed among them. For example the achievement of Pakistan was a common cause under the influence of ideology.

Sincere Dedication and Pledges

The pledges and sincere dedication are also necessary for an ideology because an ideology becomes successful only when all the people accept it completely. Thus a dedication is developed with the ideology, hence the power of the ideology increases. For example the Muslims of South Asia are highly dedicated to their common causes for seeking freedom and establishment of a Muslim State.




Character is the sum of total habits, attitudes and the way of living an individual. The character of a person is influenced by the ideology. Thus if an ideology produces the uniformity of thoughts, then the habits, traditions and way of life of the whole nation become same which is collectively known as national character. There is a great importance of national character in success and stability of an ideology. The national character is formed from the following moral and ethical values in the light of an ideology.

1. Firm Faith
2. Devotion
3. Honesty and Probity
4. Patriotism
5. Labour and Hard work
6. National Interest

1. Firm Faith

It is necessary that one should make firm faith on ideology for the determination of national character. This gives help to a person in the selection of a way for action. The firm faith of the Muslim of South Asia on Pakistan Ideology helped them to achieve Pakistan for them.

2. Devotion

A uniformity of thoughts and actions should be developed among all the members of a nation. They should devote themselves with the sense of great spirit and duty.

3. Honesty and Probity

These qualities make a person practical and the practical persons can extend an ideology practically. An individual should lea a just life and reflect honesty in words and deeds. Islam has emphasized upon honesty and probity in very strong words.

4. Patriotism

An expression of the love and sacrifice for country is called patriotism. Patriotism gives stability to an ideology. It also establishes the national character. For instance, Pakistanis showed a gret spirit of patriotism during the war against India in 1965. It was the expression of their national character.

5. Labour and Hard work

The spirit o labour and hard work is a symbol of national character. It becomes the identity of the nations in the world. The secret of the success of nations is hidden in the labour and hard work.

6. National Interest

The collective objectives which help in progressing a country and nation are called national interest. It is necessary for an individual to reflect the supremacy of national interest with his personal character. Only those nations survive whose individuals not compromise on the national interest.



Definition of Democracy

“Type of government in which, the representatives for the government are selected by the votes of common people and all the members of the state take part directly or indirectly in the formation of the government is called Democracy.”
Principles of Democracy in Islam

Islam has a different concept of Democracy from the rest of the world. Under Islamic democracy, the states of affairs are run according to the teachings of the Holy Quran and Sunnah. The foundation of democracy in Islam has been established on the basis of following principles:

1. Sovereignty

Under Islamic democracy, the sovereignty belongs ot Almighty Allah. God fearing persons to run the affairs of the state are desirable to elect as the premiers of the state. The government as well as the legislative assemblies does not enjoy the unlimited powers. However the people are at liberty to elect.

2. Justice

The literal meaning of justice is to keep the rights things at their right places. It is the foundation of divine law. No aspect of life can be complete without justice. It is the justice which makes any society peaceful and prosperous. The individual and collective lives are made effective due to the establishment of justice.

3. Equality

Equality means all the persons are treated under the same principles of the state. Islam rejects all kinds of discrimination on the basis of languages, caste, colour, culture, wealth or poverty. The Holy prophet (P.B.U.H) in his last pilgrimage declared that all human beings are the off-springs of Hazrat Adam. No Arab has any precedence over a Non-Arab and vice versa.

4. Fraternity

Fraternity means brotherhood. Allah has told in the Holy Quran that all the believers are brothers to each other. The principles of fraternity are an important aspect of Islamic society. As brothers all the Muslims share the problems of each other and their happiness also. Our holy prophet (P.B.U.H) said that a Muslim is a brother to another. Mutual co-operation is developed due to the establishment of fraternity in the society.

5. Tolerance

Tolerance means is the power of endurance and to accept the criticism of the others merrily. Tolerance makes the mutual relations of human beings strong. The holy prophet (P.B.U.H) preached tolerance through his words and deeds. Tolerance gives an ability to every person to neglect the mistakes of the others thus the possibilities of quarreling with each other are discriminated and a state of peace is developed in the society.




Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah gave practical shape to the ideology given by Allama Iqbal.

After joining Muslim League in 1913, he continued with his efforts to bring about Hindu Muslim unity but he was greatly disappointed to see the prejudicial attitude of the Congress and Hindus towards the Muslims. Following are some extracts from the speeches and statements which he delivered from time to time for explaining the ideology of Pakistan.

Address At Second Round Table Conference in 1931

Quaid-e-Azam believed that Congress and Hindus would never recognize the rights of Muslims. He declared while representing the Muslims in the second Round Table Conference in 1913:

“The Hindu Muslim dispute must be settled before the enforcement of any system or constitution. Until you do not give guarantee for the safeguard of the Muslim interests, until you do not win their (Muslims) co-operations, any constitution you enforece shall not last for even 24 hours.”

Quaid-e-Azam and Two Nation Theory

Quaid-e-Azam was a firm advocate of two nation theory which became the ideological basis of Pakistan. He said:
“The Muslims are a nation by every right to establish their separate homeland. They can adopt any means to promote and protect their economic social, political and cultural interests.”

On 23rd March, 1940 at the historic session of the Muslim League at Lahore, he said:

“The Mussalmans are not a minority. They are a nation by any definition. By all canons of International law we are a nation.”

In his presidential address at the annual session of Muslim League at Lahore in 1940. He said:

“India is not a nation, nor a country. It is a Sub Continent of nationalities. Hindus and Muslims being the two major nations. The Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religions, philosophies, social customs and literature. They neither intermarry nor inter dine and they belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their aspects on life and of are different. It is quite clear that Hindus and Muslims derive their inspiration from different sources of history.”

On March 8, 1944 while addressing the students of Muslim University, he said:

“Hindus and Muslims through living in the same town and villages had never been blended into one nation. They were always two separate entities.”

Quaid-e-Azam and Millat-e-Islamia

He believed that only Islam was the unifying force of the Muslim Millat. He said:

“What relationships knits the Muslims into one whole, which is the formidable rock on which the Muslim edifice has been erected, which is the sheet anchor providing base to the Muslim Millat, the relationship, the sheet anchor and the rock is Holy Quran.”

Address At Islamia College Peshawar

In 1946, at Islamia College Quaid-e-Azam declared:

“We do not demand Pakistan simply to have a piece of land but we want a laboratory where we could experiment on Islamic principles.”

Address on 18th June 1945

In his message to the Frontier Muslim Students Federation, he said:

“Pakistan not only means freedom and independence but Muslim ideology, which has to be preserved which came to us as a precious gift and treasure and which we hope, other will share with us.”


The above sayings and statements largely prove that Quaid-e-Azam wanted to establish an Islamic system as a code of life because he believed that it was the sole objective of the Pakistan Movement.




Pakistan is an ideological state and the ideology of Pakistan is an Islamic Ideology. Its basic principles being:

“The only Sovereign is Allah.”

Ideology of Pakistan basically means that Pakistan should be a state where the Muslims should have an opportunity to live according to the faith and creed based on the Islamic principles. Quaid-e-Azam once said:

“Pakistan was created the day the first Indian national entered the field of Islam.”

From the above statement, it is clear that ideology of Pakistan is an Islamic one.

Two Nation Concepts

The fundamental concept of ideology is that Muslims should get a separate identity. They should have a separate state where they could live according to Islamic rules and principle. On one occasion Quaid-e-Azam said:

“The Muslims demand Pakistan where they can rule in accordance with their own system of life, their culture development, their traditions and Islamic laws.”

Thus, this fundamental concept of ideology led to the concept of two nations in the Sub Continent and resulted in the formation of Pakistan.

Factors Creating the Idea of Separate Homeland

Factors creating the idea of a separate homeland were as follows:

1. Anti Muslim Campaign

The Hindus and British joined hands to destroy the faith, belief, customs and national importance of Muslims because Muslim rebellion was creating much problem for both.

2. In Acceptance of British Rule

Muslims had been ruling the Sub-Continent for ages. Therefore, they could not resist any power over them. When British came to rule the Sub Continent, Muslims were the only nation who opposed them. Thus, in order to gain power, British had to crush the Muslims collectively.

3. Hindus Betrayed Muslims

In the beginning, Hindus appeared to be on Muslim’s side, but later on their hostility was exposed as they opposed various steps taken by British Government which purely benefited Muslims.

4. Refusal of Muslim Identity

British wanted to implement parliamentary system in Sub-Continent in which the majority was the power and authority. due to Hindu majority it was probable that if British left India undivided, it would fall under the Hindus Rule. Further more, Hindus did not accept the separate identity of Muslims and thus, there were no chances of freedom even after the British rule.

5. War of 1857

In 1857, Muslims and Hindus tried to expel the British out of India but failed. Later due to Hindu conspiracies, Muslims were held responsible for it and hence were crushed further by British.

6. Sir Syed’s Idea

Sir Syed for the first time put down the idea that Muslims are a separate nation. He convinced Muslims to unite themselves in order to have a separate social and political identity.

Basic Points of Ideology of Pakistan

Muslims are different from Hindus in every aspect, their culture, civilization, customs and religion all are entirely different.
The Muslims need a free state for protection of their separate where they can live in accordance with their faith, belief and follow the Islamic codes.

Importance of Ideology in National Life

Ideology is a motivating force for a nation, which is striving hard to bring stability and homogeneity to its nation hood. It provides the binding force to the scattered groups in a society and brings them close to each other on a common platform. Ideologies impel their adherence to follow a joint linked action for the accomplishment of their goal. Ideologies give shape to the revolutions and create new cultures and civilizations. They stress on their adherents to insist on the realization of their ideal through total transformation of society.
An urgent agreement with each other on the ideals is most vital pre-requisite of an ideology.


The fundamental concept of the ideology of Pakistan is that Muslims are a separate nation having their own culture, literature, religion and way of life. They cannot be merged in any other nation. They should be able to develop their culture and religious traditions in an Islamic State and they should be able to create a true Islamic society for themselves.
Thus the ideology of Pakistan which developed through the period of Mohammad Bin Qasim and others and followed by political leaders like Quaid-e-Azam was materialized in 1947.