Tuesday, June 21, 2011

Class X, ENGLISH, "An African Village"

CHAPTER – 16

Question and Answers

Q.1 How many independent countries are there in Africa and where is Nigeria?
Ans. Africa is the second largest continent which consists of more than twenty five independent countries. Nigeria is one of the largest countries of Africa. It is in West Africa.

Q.2 What is the bush area made up of and where do most Nigeria farmers live?
Ans. The bush area is consisted of scattered trees with heavy undergrowth in the form of thick bush and grass. Most of the Nigerian farmers live in the villages and farm settlements in the bush area. They construct huts and live in those huts.

Q.3 What is the centre of activities?
Ans. The main centre of activities is the courtyard of house. Women cook food and work over there and children play there. They only use rooms for resting purposes.

Q.4 What are their food crops and cash crops?
Ans. The crop, which is edible and we use as food are called food crops. The main food crops of Nigeria are plantains, potatoes, yarns, ground nuts and pepper. The crop which is sold to other countries are called cash crops and the Nigeria’s cash crops include palm oil and cocoa.

Q.5 Who tends the food crops and the cash crops?
Ans. Food crops are usually tended by the women. Whereas, the cash crops are tended by men.

Q.6 What is made from cocoa beans and yield from palm trees?
Ans. From the fruit of cocoa tree, yield beans which are grounded into powder which forms chocolate. From the palm trees, palm oil is yield. When the oil from the trees is passed through the chemical processors, the palm oil is obtained in pure form.

Q.7 Why was continent Africa called “Dark Continent” once?
Ans. Continent Africa was called “Dark Continent” once because the habitats and civilizations of the people of this continent was not known to the world. Due to their backward living styles and old fashioned traits, this continent seems to be the dull part of this world.

Q.8 Give a brief account of Nigeria?
Ans. Nigeria is situated in West Africa and is one of the largest countries of Africa. Nigeria is basically an agricultural country. It is also a thickly populated country which comprises majority of farmers. A great part of Nigeria is covered with a dense forest.

Q.9 How is the life of Nigerian farmer differ from Pakistani farmer?
Ans. The life of Nigerian farmer differ from Pakistani farmer in many ways. Their agricultural style is quite different from our’s. They are not in the favour of keeping cattles because of the disease which unables them to use cattles in farming. Their daily routine of life also differs from Pakistani farmer.

Q.10 Describe the changes that are coming or likely to come soon in the life of the bush dwellers in Nigeria.
Ans. Many favourable changes are coming in the life of bush dwellers, which include the availability of transport and communication, health and education, food and water etc. Soon their life style will more develope because many more modern facilities are making their way in these villages.

Q.11 Describe the life of a Nigerian farmer and his wife?
Ans. The life a Nigerian villager is a model of hard work. From the rising of sun to the dark, they work in the fields and houses. Farmer usually does all the work related to agriculture and women do the household jobs including looking after the food crops.

Q.12 Describe the building style of Nigerian farm.
Ans. The building style of Nigerian farms consists of three styles. First style is a single roomed and simple but which is made from thick branches of trees. Other style is the cone shaped huts made from straw and whose roof is thatched grass, needs or palm trees. Last style is the two or three roomed huts made of wood or are plastered with mud.

Q.13 Why can Nigerian farmer not rear cattle?
Ans. Nigerian farmers are not interested in rearing cattles because of the major hazards for the cattles. Tse-Tse fly is the sign of dangers for them. On the other hand, it is also dangerous for human beings because it causes unconsciousness state which most of the time ends in death.

Sentences

1. Century: Computer is the most amazing invention of this century.
2. Cultivate: Modern methods of agriculture are being used to cultivate the fields.
3. Dense: Amazon forest is mainly covered with dense vegetation.
4. Export: Rice is the major export of Pakistan.
5. Scatter: The shelling of the police scatter the crowd.
6. Things out: The market is thickly, crowded at the beginning but it things out at the end.

Idioms

1. To shed crocodile tears: to weep insincerely, or hypocritically
Example: They were not all sorry when he died. They just sheded crocodile tears.
Sentence: From the attitude of UN towards Kashmir issue, it seems that it is just shedding crocodile tears.

2. To feel like first out of water: To feel out of place
Example: Being the only educated man in that village, I feel like a fish out of water there.
Sentence: Aslam was the only member of Women rights association and felt like a fish out of water.

3. To nip in the bud: To stop evil in the early stages
Example: The plot to overthrow the government was detected nd nipped in the bud.
Sentence: he should not prevail the bad atmosphere in the society and try, to nip in the bud of crimes.

4. To turn over a new leaf: To reform, to behave better
Example: The teacher pardoned the boy on the condition that he promised to turn over a new leaf.
Sentence: The death of his parents turned over a new leaf in his life.

Synonyms

1. Coartyard – Compound
2. Link – Join
3. Dense – Thick
4. Explore – Search
5. Introduce – Acquaint
6. Century – One Hundred
7. Majority – More than half
8. Cultivate – to grow
9. Facility – Convenience

Antonyms

1. Dense – Thin
2. Majority – Minority
3. Remote – Near
4. Major – Minor
5. Independent – Dependent
6. Interior – Exterior
7. Export – Import

Grammar

1. Complete the Following Sentences with Shall, Will, Should, Would:

1. I think I shall go to the Karachi next week.
2. You should not tell a lie.
3. We shall fight to the last men.
4. This office will remain open till midnight.
5. I shall be grateful if you kindly grant me a pass.
6. The train would have arrived now.
7. Should our motherland need it, we will lay down our lives for it.
8. You should respect your elders.
9. Had you been there, it would never have happened.
10. They should not violate any condition of this contract.

2. Prepositions

1. Please introduce me to your father.
2. He is not acquainted with my parents.
3. This machine is fitted with automatic control.
4. You are not fit for this job.
5. A round nail does not for into a square hole.
6. He has passed the examination and is not looking for a job.
7. The police are on the look out for the robbers.
8. Look for the meaning of this world in the dictionary.
9. He promised to look into this matter.
10. We look up at you to solve our problems.

3. Change into Passive Voice

1. A road links his village to the town.
Ans. His village is linked to the town by a road.

2. A snake in the grass stung his barefoot.
Ans. His barefoot was stung by a snake in the grass.

3. He cannot rear any cattle on his farm.
Ans. No cattle can be reared by him on his farm.

4. Their father settled the dispute between the brothers.
Ans. The dispute between the brothers was settled by their father.

4. Change into Active Voice

1.This lamp was lit by the servant.
Ans. The servant lit this lamp.

2. The soldier was ordered by the officer to report to him.
Ans. The officer ordered the soldier to report to him.

3. By whom was this blanket patched?
Ans. Who patched this blanket?

4. Was this land cultivated by the land owner himself?
Ans. Did the Land owner cultivated the land himself?

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